Download номер журнала Историческая Экспертиза 1 (22) 2020 

IN THE ISSUE:

COLLECTIVE MEMORY

Global Memory

 

     P. 9   “I believed that Russians were our friends, that they were brave people who fight huge numbers of Germans”. Interview with R. Inglehart

Abstract. Professor Inglehart shares his memory regarding the Second World War, remembers how the image of Russians has changed shortly after 1945 and how he had discussions with his students-protesters against the Vietnam war, suggests a new approach to the materialist and post-materialist values as products of the emotional memory, predicts the democratic transfer of China, believes that academics should stand against current xenophobic and authoritarian political trends.

Key words: the Second World War, the Cold War, McCarthyism, the War in Vietnam, emotional memory, materialist values, post-materialist values.

 

    P. 19  “As America launched several wars and enacted increasingly strict and violent policy I decided to shift my work to American memory”. Interview with T. Wertsch

Abstract. “As America launched several wars and enacted increasingly strict and violent policy I decided to shift my work to American memory”. In his interview Tyler Wertsch tells how his father a well known researcher in the field of memory studies James Wertsch influenced his professional choice, in what degree Hollywood movies and video games shaped his generation’s image of Russia and how it is related to current media discourse regarding “the Russian interference” in the US presidential elections and so on. He argues that authors of video games and Hollywood films permanently manipulate anxieties and fears of the American national memory for the business aim to increase their profit, compare American generic narratives “Rebuffing of Invaders” and “The City upon a Hill” and tells about his academic plans.

Key words: narrative templates, generic narratives “Rebuffing of Invaders” and “The City upon a Hill”, national memory, video games and Hollywood films.

 

   P. 25  TYLER WERTSCH. Still Fighting with Echoes and Ghosts: Collective Memory, National Identity and the New Frontier of Popular American Films and Video Games

Abstract. Historically, memory studies has had a fruitful relationship with cinema. However, one area that has been neglected by memory scholars until very recently is popular video games, many of which (like the Call of Duty franchise) regularly outsell even the most popular films. This paper explores the ways heavily consumed American popular media (popular films, video games) help to both create and meet the demands of a mnemonic community, particularly with regards to American national memory and collective existential anxieties. More specifically, there has been a pattern of resuscitating Cold War anxieties (i.e. anti-Russian) for use as generic narratives in many American popular media texts, despite there being no recognizable historical base for such stories. The production of such texts taps into American collective memory and raises demand for more such texts, resulting in a mnemonically-aided feedback loop with potentially dangerous political and ideological repercussions.

Key words: Memory, collective memory, memory studies, video games, games studies, Call of Duty, film studies, cinema, memory industry, America, Russia, violence, narrative, consumption studies.

 

Hybridization of Memory. The attempts to dissolve the memory of Stalin’s Repressions. Edited by K.S. Konolyanko

 

     P. 42  P. M. POLIAN. Boris Menshagin, Katyn and wars of memory

Abstract. The name of Boris Georgievich Menshagin (1902–1984), mayor of Smolensk and Bobruysk during the Nazi occupation occurs more and more frequently in recent history studies. Boris Menshagin is recalled in the first place as the author of extremely interesting memoirs and as striking and very interesting personality whose unique destiny asks many questions to historians and deserves thorough study and reflection. His literature heritage, including memoirs, recorded interviews and letters is a very valuable historical source touching on prewar, wartime and postwar history of the USSR. These evidences are monument to the epoch and real treasure and for masterminds from of Chief Political Directorate they are beam in the eye, destroying stereotypes. Author analyzes evolution of Menshagin’s historiography as well as of his personality phenomenon.

Key words: historiography, propaganda, Boris Menshagin, occupation, Smolensk, Katyn.

 

     P. 66  K.S. KONOPLYANKO. Memory in «blackwhite» colors: who are annoyed by Mednoe War Cementary?

Abstract. This article deals with the problem of the demand of contemporary Russian leadership on instrumental using of history in order to please it’s own state interests. It may be seen on the reconstruction of museum expositions, which are connected with the «inconvenient» theme of repressions. Especially represents this problem the situation with the company against Mednoe War Cementary, — one of the places where the polish victims of Katyn massacre were buried.

Key words: Mednoe War Cementary, Katyn massacre, historical memory, repressions, RVIO.

 

     P. 97   “I’m absolutely sure nothing will work out with memory hybridization”. Interview with I.A. Flige

Abstract. The head of the St. Petersburg Memorial, Irina Flige, reflects on today's historical politics in Russia using the example of the history of the memorial complex in Sandоrmokh (Karelia) dedicated to the victims of the Stalinist Great Terror. According to the new version, supported by official historical politics, the responsibility for the victims of Sandоrmokh was assigned to the Finnish army, which occupied these territories during World War II.

Key words: Stalinist Great Terror, historical memory, historical policy of Russia nowadays, Finnish occupation of Soviet Karelia in 1941–1944.

 

     P. 104  “Until our country does not have official legal evaluation of soviet repressions as crimes, such incidents as «Dmitriev case» and «Perm’s Memorial case» will be continued”. Interview with R.R. Latypov

Abstract. The interview deals with the prosecution of Perm’s “Memorial” after the expedition to Galyashor cementary, where lithuanian and polish special resettlers were buried. This topic is viewed in wider context, namely the place of soviet repressions in the historical memory of contemporary Russia.

Key words: special resettlers, Galyashor-Memorial-Latypov, soviet repressions, historical memory, historical policy of contemporary Russia.

 

     P. 117  S.V. GLUSHKOV. About the history of Mednoye — the burial place of victims of soviet political repressions

Abstract. The article represents the evidence of praticipant of the events of 1988–1992 years, connected with the finding out of Mednoye in Tver’s region — the burial place of polish prisoners of war from Ostshkov internment. The author also gives the people’s evidences, collected by him during his work as a journalist, where some information about transfers of prisoners of Ostashkov internment was given, and other sources related to the disputes about the burial place of polish prisoners of war.

Key words: Mednoye, polish prisoners of war, Ostashkov internment, Katyn massacre.

 

Actual problems of national memory of foreign countries

 

     P. 126  “Japan was and remains a fundamentally «different» civilization for russians”. Interview with V.E. Molodyakov

Abstract. Historical memory of the contemporary Japanese is determined by zigzags of their national history — from conservative revolution Meiji ishin of 1868 through the period of expansion and aggressive wars up to the defeat in Second World War and post-war economic triumph. For the Japanese people memory of past wars is not an “open wound”, but a trauma overcoming of that helped country’s renaissance. Second World War remains for the Japanese the greatest event of the 20th century but more and more felt and seen as finally “past”. Their attitude to national history may be different but radical points of view, even ultra-nationalist or “masochistic”, are not popular or common. Evolution of Japan’s image in Russia reflected changes in her policy and global role.

Key words: Japan, Asia, Russia, modernization, war, treaty, image.

 

     P. 134  “In essence, communism is good, but all its manifestations are bad”. Interview with A. Heller

Abstract. The internationally famous Hungarian philosopher Ágnes Heller in her last interview talks about her own experiences and gives her own assessment of the events and phenomena of contemporary history, which she saw through the eyes of an eyewitness.

Key words: Hungary, Holocaust, World War II, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, György Lukács, communist ideology, liberal ideology, János Kádár regime in Hungary, Western university life, the fall of communism in Eastern Europe.

 

     P. 159   “We are on the verge of large-scale historical changes”. Interview with J. Bak

Abstract. The well-known Hungarian and Canadian expert in medieval history studies János M. Bak, a witness to many historical events of the 20th century, talks about his life and university career.

Key words: Hungary, Holocaust, Stalinism in Eastern Europe, the Hungarian revolution of 1956, Western university life, medieval studies, the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, Central European University, George Soros, Viktor Orbán.

 

Corporate memory

     P. 185  At the turn of the eras. Remembering Valentin Semenovich Dyakin

Abstract. The publication is dedicated to the memory and heritage of the outstanding Russian historian V. S. Dyakin. Having begun his activity as an expert in the German history, and having retained interest in the history of Russian-German economic ties, he left a noticeable mark in the study of the history of the “Duma Monarchy” and was one of the first to turn to the study of the national question in the Russian Empire. Interviews with A.N. Tsamutali, V. G. Savelyeva, B. D. Halperina, L.A. Bulgakova and I.V. Lukoyanov reflect the process of forming of the historian, show his “creative laboratory”, illuminate the attitude towards students and colleagues, and demonstrate the versatility of his personality. V.V. Vedernikov analyzes the stages of the academic biography of the researcher.

Key words: history of historical science, V.S. Dyakin, Leningrad State University, Leningrad Branch of the Institute of History of the USSR, USSR Academy of Sciences, collective memory. History of Russia at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries.

 

Napoleon and his era in historical memory (for the 250th anniversary of his birth)

 

     P. 249  N. P. TANSHINA. 250 years for Napoleon Bonoparte: in the wake of the jubilee

Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of the transformation of the historical memory about Napoleon Bonaparte on the basis of the analysis of anniversary events dedicated to the 250th anniversary of his birth. The article is based on a wide range of recent sources: the interviews of leading French historians published in the days of the anniversary celebration; the materials of personal conversations of the author with French researchers, as well as personal observations of the studied events in the days of Napoleon Bonaparte's jubilee in Ajaccio on August 13–15, 2019. The article provides a comparative analysis of the anniversary celebrations (associated with the 200th anniversary of the First Empire) and commemorations (dedicated to the 250th anniversary of Napoleon) and analyzes the changes taking place in the mass and historical consciousness of the French in recent years.

Key words: historical memory, historical consciousness, mass consciousness, Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleon's 250th anniversary, the First Empire.

 

AS IT ACTUALLY WAS

 

     P. 267  I. R. PETROV. The defense of the Brest Fortress in 1939 and the testimony of Corporal Jan Samosyuk

Abstract. The article gives the evidence of a Polish eyewitness, which let the contemporary historians put forward the version that the defense of the Brest Fortress by units of the Polish army in 1939 lasted until September 27, i.e. it was first defended from German troops, and then from the Soviet. The article, based on the archival documents, primarily the military journal of the XIX Wehrmacht army corps, proves the unreliability of this evidence. The concrete circumstances of the solemn march of German troops held on September 22 during the city’s transfer are also specified.

Key words: Brest, Brest fortress, Guderian, handover of Brest on 22.09.1939, Krivoshein, Poland campaign, Radziszewski, Second World War.

 

     P. 275  I. I. BARINOV. Death in Constantinople: new versions of the assassination of General Romanovsky, 1920

Abstract. The article examines the events surrounding the murder of Ivan Romanovsky, a White Russian general, one of the founders of the Volunteer White Army, which took place in Constantinople in the Spring of 1920. According to the generally accepted version, Romanovsky was assasinated by a terrorist who probably avenged him for the defeat of the White armies. As reported by journalist Roman Gul', the personality of the assassin was identified with White Russian Poruchik Mstislav Kharuzin. Based on previously unknown documents, an attempt is made to reconstruct the events of that day, aiming to suggest new hypotheses regarding the murder.

Key words: White movement, Ivan Romanovsky, Russian emigration, Constantinopole.

 

REVIEWS

Generalizing studies

 

     P. 287   N.D. ASTASHOVA. The history of the space or space history? Rev.: Bordiugov G.A. Prostranstva rossiiskoi istorii XX–XXI vekov, sostavlenie i predislovie: Dmitrii Andreev. Moscow: AIRO-XXI, 2019. 352 p.

Abstract. The text presents a critique of the “space approach” in historical science, as well as an analysis of its crisis state in modern times.

Key words: space approach, the crisis of history, post-modern thinking, simulation, reproduced eventfulness.

 

     P. 293  A.T. BEZAROV. Romanian Millstones of the Holocaust. Rev.: I.E. Levit Shoa — Holocaust — Disaster: The Jewish Question in the Dictatorship Policy of I. Antonescu. In 2 volumes. Tiraspol: LLC Litera, 2015–2017

Abstract. The two-volume monograph of the famous Moldavian historian I.E. Levit under review is devoted to the events of the Holocaust in Romania from 1939 to 1944. The author deeply analyzed the causes and nature of this dramatic period in the history of the Romanian Jews, restored the chronology of the mass murder of Jews in the territories of modern Moldova and 304 А. Т. Безаров Ukraine occupied by fascist Romania. The value of the book lies in the fact that its author as a whole managed to prove the political responsibility of the I. Antonescu regime for the numerous facts of the genocide of the Jewish population during the Second World War.

Key words: Jews, Romania, Holocaust, Transnistria, Bukovyna, Bessarabia, I.Antonescu.

 

     P. 305 V.B. AKSENOV. Internet project in printed form. Rev.: 1917 god. Den’ za dnem. Sbornik dokumentov, vospominanij, dnevnikovyh i gazetnyh zapisej: 18+ /sost. Sergej Lunyov, Artyom Sokolov; nauch. red. Igor’ Barinov. Moscow: Vatnikstan, 2019. 308 p.

Abstract. The author reviews a collection of documents dedicated to the everyday life of the capitals in 1917, which was a continuation of the Internet project in 2017. Against the background of the fall of the general culture of publication of historical documents there is a low level of archeographical level of the work done, and the author of the review, recognizing certain heuristic success of the compilers of the collection, makes constructive suggestions for changing the structure of the book.

Key words: 1917, revolution, review, periodicals, archeography.

  

The world

     P. 312  P. G. CHEREMUSHKIN. Rev.: Volobuev V.V. Pol’sha v sovetskom bloke: ot «ottepeli» k krahu rezhima. Moscow: Russkij fond sodejstviya obrazovaniyu i nauke, 2018. 272 p.

Abstract. A collection of essays on key problems of the history of post-war Poland in the context of its belonging to the Soviet bloc is reviewed.

Key words: Poland, the Soviet bloc, Soviet-Polish relations, the Polish crisis of 1970, the Polish crisis of 1980–1981, the Solidarity movement in Poland, the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, Władysław Gomułka, Wojciech Jaruzelski, Lech Wałęsa, Ioannes Paulus PP. II.

 

The Russian Empire

     P. 324  A.A. TESLEA. “The new person” in the “Sovremennik”. Rev.: Vdovin A.V. Dobrolyubov: raznochinec mezhdu duhom i plot’yu. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 2017. 298 p.: il. (seriya: “Zhizn’ zamechatel’nyh lyudej”, vyp. 1639)

Abstract. The book which is reviewed is the latest biography of Dobrolyubov — an examination of his life in a broad historical and cultural context, with a primary focus on how literary models affect life practices, and the need to comprehend the latter affects the perception of literature.

Key words: female emancipation, the history of Russian criticism, the history of Russian social thought, literary life, semiotics of behavior.

 

     P. 332   L. PRAISMAN. A new book about Boris Savinkov. Rev.: Tri brata (To, chto bylo): Sbornik dokumentov / Sostaviteli, avtory predisloviya i kommentariev K.N. Morozov, A.Yu. Morozova. Moscow: Novyj hronograf, 2019. 1016 p.

Abstract. The book which is reviewed contains letters, articles, memoirs of a prominent figure in the Russian revolutionary movement and writer Boris Savinkov and his two brothers, who also left their mark on the history of the revolutionary movement.

Key words: Boris Savinkov, Russian revolutionary movement, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Bolshevism, 1917 revolution in Russia, OGPU, civil war in Russia, Russian emigration.

 

     P. 341  A.V. GANIN. Rev.: Stavka i revolyuciya. Shtab Verhovnogo glavnokomanduyushchego i revolyucionnye sobytiya 1917 — nachala 1918 goda. Po dokumentam Rossijskogo gosudarstvennogo voenno-istoricheskogo arhiva. Sb. dok. Moscow: Kuchkovo pole, 2019. V. 1: 18 fevralya — 18 iyunya 1917 g. Otv. red. I.O. Garkusha; sost. M.V. Abashina, N.G. Zaharova, S.A. Haritonov, O.V. CHistyakov. 1144 p.

Abstract. The review of the collection of documents, devoted to the activities of the Supreme commandment of the Russian army in the revolutionary events of 1917. The collection of documents includes a number of new archival materials concerning the role of the command of the Russian army in various military and political processes of 1917.

Key words: General Headquarters, Russian army, revolution.

 

     P. 348  S. D. BATISHCHEV. Rev.: Imperator Aleksandr II i YUzhnyj Ural: sb. dok.i materialov / sost., nauch. red. N.A. Antipin. Chelyabinsk, 2019. 538 p.

Abstract. This review considers the published collection of documents “Alexander II and South Ural”. Chelyabinsk, 2019.

Key words: Alexander II, South Ural, documents.

 

 URSS

     P. 354  M.Yu. EDELSTEIN. Sobibor: distant approaches. Rev.: Simkin L. Sobibor. Posleslovie. Pamyati XX veka. Moscow: Corpus, 2019. 304 p.

Abstract. The review contains a detailed analysis of Lev Simkin’s book “Sobibor: Afterword”, dedicated to the uprising in the Nazi death camp Sobibor on October 14, 1943 and the fate of the leader of the rebels Alexander Pechersky. Finding a lot of factual errors in the book, the reviewer, nevertheless, states that the author first used a number of important sources so that future researchers will not be able to ignore his book.

Key words: Sobibor, Alexander Pechersky, Death camps, Holocaust, National Socialism.

 

HISTORY IN UNIVERSITIES

     P. 368   N.P. TANSHINA. There is have revolution the beginning of, there is no have revolution of the late

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the international School of young scientists "Resistance to revolutions of Modern times", which was held in Moscow on September 2–6, 2016 at the Institute of World History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The school was organized by the Laboratory of Western European and Mediterranean historical studies of the State academic University of Humanities with the assistance of the Institute of World History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The participants of the School discussed a wide range of problems related to the resistance or opposition to the French revolution of the late XVIII century and the European revolutions of Modern times. The focus of the participants was a wide range of problems associated with resistance or opposition as the French revolution of the late eighteenth century, and in General European revolutions of Modern times. The School was attended by leading experts on the studied problems from Russia, France and the UK, and the students of the school were young researchers from Moscow, Yekaterinburg, St. Petersburg, Saratov, Volgograd and Arkhangelsk.

Key words: School of young scientists, Resistance to revolutions of Modern times, French revolution of XVIII century, war in Vendee, Tyrolean uprising, revolutionary propaganda.

 

P. 374   Requirements for publication of articles and documents

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