Content of the issue 1(14)/2018
P. 9 J. Assmann. Globalization, Universalism, and the Erosion of Cultural Memory. Trans.: Assmann J. Globalization, Universalism, and the Erosion of Cultural Memory // Memory in a Global Age. Discourses, Practices and Trajectories. Edited by Aleida Assmann and Sebastian Conrad. Houndsmills, Basingstoke, UK; New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. P. 121–137.
Abstract. The author distinguishes between globalization and universalism. Universalism suggests an intellectual and spiritual phenomenon, globalization; on the other hand, a political, economic and civilization process (implying material rather than spiritual culture). Two typical universalisms of Western antiquity are monotheism, both in its inclusive (All Gods are One) and exclusive, Biblical form (No other gods!) on the one hand, and Greek science and philosophy on the other, both implying an emphatic concept of Truth with a claim for universal validity. Two typical forms of political globalization of the Ancient World are internationalism and imperialism.
Key words: The Ancient World, Globalization, Universalism, Internationalism, Imperialism.
Abstract. The recently adopted laws in Poland in the field of historical politics have caused a considerable and ambiguous international response. Israel and Jewish communities in other countries are concerned that new legislation could block the Holocaust studies. At the same time, some circles in Ukraine perceived the ban in Poland of the „Bandera ideology” as a denial of the right of Ukrainians to their own statehood and national dignity. „Historical expertise” asked a number of well-known experts to comment on the situation.
Key words: Poland, Ukraine, the historical memory, the historical policy, Holocaust, Bandera.
P. 41 Е.А. Rostovtsev. Medieval heroes and events of national history D.А. Sosnitsky in network resources “Russia is my history”: the network of historical parks
Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of the image of the Russian Middle Ages in the network resources of the Russian-speaking Internet segment. The authors analyze the features of designing images of the most important memory spaces from the history of Russia’s pre-Peter period and attempt to ascertain the importance of the modern interactive Internet content for forming of the notions about the past.
Key words: historical memory, medieval Rus, VK, Instagram, Wikipedia, History.RF, network resources.
Abstract. The article is based on one verse of historical policy implementation in contemporary Russia. The main reason for the article is the opening of so called «Historical Park “Russia — My History”» in St. Petersburg. The author analysed the content of the exhibition and also tried to indicate the place of such projects in the construction of historical policy in contemporary Russia.
Key words: “Russia — My History”, historical policy, St. Petersburg.
Abstract. The short review presents the historian's view of the exhibition “Russia is My History” in Perm.
Abstract. The examination of the multimedia exhibition “Russia — my history”, that was opened in Ekaterinburg on the initiative of the Patriarchal Council for Culture, with the Bishop Tikhon (Shevkunov) of Egorievsk as the Curator, produces a very contradictory impression. The exhibition is addressed first of all to the youth, the modern technologies are broadly used with the goal to attract the young visitors. But on the other hand, the exhibition’s concept is very archaic, it goes back to the count Uvarov’s formula “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality”, so the State and the Church are viewed as the determinants of the Russian history. The content of many exhibited materials as well as the methods of its presentation testify the propagandistic character of this project, which is manifested in the accent of the idea of the “particular way” and the special mission of Russia, resisting to the hostile West for many centuries and in many spheres. The visitor would not get any information about the Soviet foreign policy in 1939-1941, so the impression is formed that the USSR entered in the World War II not on 17 September 1939, but only on 22 June 1941. At the same time, some sections of the exposition, first of all those which are based on the regional materials, are free of any ideological propaganda, differing for the better from the main content of the exhibition.93 A.A. Prokopev. Another look at the exposition in Yekaterinburg. “Russia is my history”: the park is not as bad as it is painted.
Key words: multimedia exhibition “Russia — my history”, Ekaterinburg, historical mythology, Russian history, ideological propaganda.
Abstract. The network of historical parks “Russia — my history” in different cities of the country is the largest exhibition project and exposition complex in Russia today. The first park was founded on June 12, 2017 in Ufa and six months after the launch of the project the geography of its sites covers more than 15 cities, stretching from St. Petersburg to Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. “Historical expertise” opens a series of publications in which professional historians assess the overall concept of the project, its ideological component, as well as methods of exposition practice.
Key words: multimedia exhibition “Russia — my history”, historical mythology, Russian history, ideological propaganda, Russian cities.
Actual problems of national memory of foreign countries
Abstract. The topic of the conversation with the Polish sociologist Rafal Pankovsky is the key problems of the Polish national memory in the light of the experience of the 20th century.
Key words: Poland, national memory, historical experience, interethnic disputes, the Soviet-German Pact of 1939.
P. 115 “Almost no one thinks of this country outside the integrated European civilizational space.” Interview with Ya. Shimov
Abstract. The historian and journalist, expert on the Czech problems, Yaroslav Shimov, discusses key events and topics of the Czech history in the light of a number of important anniversaries that the Czech nation will have to celebrate in 2018.
Key words: The Czech, the Habsburg monarchy, T. Masaryk, the formation of the Czechoslovak state, the Munich agreement, the Prague Spring.
Chronicle of historical policy
Abstract. The historian, who devoted many years to the studies of the Stalin era and Stalin's terror, comments on the program interview of the head of the FSB, A.V. Bortnikov, which gives a very apologetic version of some pages of the Soviet past, including the role of state security in Soviet history for a certain period.
Key words: Stalin, Beria, NKVD, Cheka, Great Terror.
AS IT ACTUALLY WAS
P. 137 A.A. Rybalka. The CV of A. I. Sulacadzev. New details of the biography of the famous bibliophile
Abstract. The author examines the formulary list of the famous bibliophile Alexander Sulakadzev and the group of archival documents associated with him. Documents newly introduced into scientific circulation make it possible to clarify and clarify some of the circumstances of Sulakadzev's life and activities, the figure of which, both as a bibliophile and as a falsifier, continues to attract researchers and readers who are interested in Russian book culture of the times of Alexander I. The author seeks to show that all situations, in which his hero and persons close to him, had to enter into formal relations with the state were diligently documented and that these documents allow to receive more A detailed picture of Sulakadzev's career and personal relationships than it was to this day.
Key words: biography, rank, service, estate, marriage, salary, Sulakadzev, Schroeder.
Abstract. “Istoricheskaya expertiza” is addressed to a number of Russian historians, good experts in the complicated, controversial issues in the Russian-Ukrainian relations in different historical periods and to a prominent Ukrainian historian some questions concerning the possibilities for mutual understanding and the prospects for fruitful dialogue and cooperation between Russian and Ukrainian colleagues in the research of common past of neighbor nations.
Abstract. The review shows the relevance and novelty of V. A. Shnirelman's fundamental research on contemporary „religiously motivated anti-Semitism” in Russia. The most important aspects of this research, according to the reviewer, are highlighted: 1. Analysis of the „anti-Semitic eschatological myth”, the history of its creation and dissemination (first in the West and then in Russia); 2. The revealing of the reasons for not only anti-Semitic, but anti-Western trends in this myth at the present time; 3. Answering questions about what the modern „political Orthodoxy” is, what social and political forces in Russia it is connected with, and why „anti-Semitism without Jews” has become possible. An analysis of all these problems „inevitably refers to the sphere of public behavior and even to public policy issues”, the author of the study notes.
Key words: religious anti-Semitism, eschatological myth, „Protocols of the Elders of Zion”, „political Orthodoxy”, „anti-Semitism without Jews”.
P. 186 M.V. Medovarov. The Big Narrative of the History of Patriotism and Nationalism in Russia: Achievements and Problems
Abstract. The review is devoted to the collective monograph by eleven historians that is one of the first attempts of creating a “big narrative” of history of patriotism and nationalism in Russia in the 19th — 20th centuries. Uncertainty of the subject of investigation and diametrically opposite approaches of some authors damaged the integrity of the book. Nevertheless some of its chapters could be considered as outstanding examples of study of the Russian social life during certain periods. Acutely polemical in nature are the chapters on the Slavophiles, Pochvenniks, Populists. There are set forth academically and thoroughly the views on the problems of nationalism and patriotism of the Social Democrats, Nationalists, Constitutional Democrats and partly of the Conservatives under Nicholas II. The thought of the Russian Diaspora is also presented, but more than half of the entire book is devoted to the problems of patriotism and nationalism in the Soviet period (from 1917 to 1991).
Key words: patriotism, nationalism, populism, Slavophilism, liberalism, conservatism, social democracy, Bolsheviks, Stalinism, dissidents.
P. 196 V.A. Solonari. Rev.: Jörg Baberowski, Scorched Earth: Stalin’s Reign of Terror translated from German by Steven Gilbert, Ivo Kompljen, and Samantha Jeanne Taber (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2016) x, 500 pp. James Harris, The Great Fear: Stalin’s Terror of the 1930s (N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 2016) x, 205 pp.
Abstract. The books by German historian Jörg Baberowski and American historian James Harris are devoted to the history of Stalinism. This review compares largely different interpretation of the origins of Stalinist Great Terror, offered by two authors.
P. 207 A. V. Sveshnikov. Reception, dialogue of cultures or “satanic eurolibido”. Rev.: Bulanin D.M. Zhanna D’Ark v Rossii. Istoricheskii obraz mezhdu literaturoi i propagandoi. M.; SPb.: “Al’yans-Arheo”, 2016. 720 s.
Abstract. The review presents an analysis of the monograph by D. M. Bulanin's „Jeanne d'Arc in Russia: A Historical Image Between Literature and Propaganda”. In the review it is noted that for all the wealth of the material attracted by the author, the theoretical and methodological grounds for the study raise certain questions.
Key words: D. M. Bulanin, Joan of Arc, reception, places of memory, image, secularization, national culture, historical culture.
The Russian Empire
P. 212 K.A. Tarasov. Rev.: Busyreva E.P. Petropavlovskaya krepost’ v dni revolyutsii 1917 goda. – SPb.: GMI SPb, 2017. 164 s.
Abstract. A new study devoted to the role of the Peter and Paul Fortress in Petrograd in the revolutionary events of 1917 is reviewed.
Key words: the Russian revolution of 1917, Petrograd, Peter and Paul Fortress.
Abstract. These notes are dedicated to the historiography of theories of feudalism in Russian and Soviet history science, their existence in the context of the historical schools and of the relations of historians and their professional identification examines. From the standpoint of the history of ideas the author attempts to show the complexity of the Russian feudalism, which was one of the pivotal topics for the historical studies of the 20th century, about which historians have determined the path of historical development of Russia.
Key words: historiography, historical science, history of ideas, Russian feudalism, feudal society, votchina, udel, immunity, V. A. Muravyev, N M. Karamzin, S. M. Solovyov.
P. 233 T. V. Medvedeva. Notes About Travelers. Rev.: Batshev M.V. Reinskie zemli glazami russkih puteshestvennikov v konce XVIII — pervoi polovine XIX veka. — Frankfurt-na-Maine: Literaturnyi evropeec, 2016. 132 s.
Abstract. This review is analyzing the book of M.V. Batshev „The Rhine Lands in the Eyes of Russian Travelers at the End of the 18th and the First Half of the 19th Century(2016)”, its scientific novelty and methodological approach, and contains a brief summary of the Russian historiography of this topic.
Key words: Germany, Rhine Valley, source-study, travelogue, correspondence.
P. 238 A. S. Gladysheva. A new viewpoint at the Soviet-Polish economic cooperation in 1944-1957. Rev.: Orehov A.M. Ocherki istorii ekonomicheskih otnoshenii SSSR i PNR (1944–1957 gg.). M.: Indrik, 2017
Abstract. The review provides an overview of A. M. Orekhov’s monograph, devoted to certain aspects of economic relations between the USSR and the Polish People's Republic between 1944–1957.
Key words: Poland, USSR, economic relations, COMECON, planned economy.
P. 247 D. I. Ivanov. Rev.: Politicheskie repressii i soprotivlenie totalitarnomu rezhimu v Petrograde–Leningrade. 1917–1991: Spravochnik. Avt.-sost. A. D. Margolis. — SPb. : Serebryanyi vek, 2016. 475 s., 300 ekz.
Abstract. A review of a reference book dedicated to political repressions and resistance during the Soviet period of the history of St. Petersburg. The accuracy and readability are beyond doubt but the project's conceptual framework and its place in historiography require some explicitation.
Key words: St Petersburg, Leningrad, Petrograd, local studies, political repressions, anti-Soviet resistance, history of Soviet Russia / USSR, memorial culture.
We see an “academic” monograph paper in history, which does not contain a historiographical review of the topic, nor the characteristics of sources, nor the designation of the methodology used. The presented monograph is an excellent example of the application of various methods of propaganda. Effective propaganda includes, as a rule, the presence of a main thesis, relatively easy for the recipient audience and difficult for criticism. The main Рец.: Дронов И. Е. Александр III и его эпоха thesis of the book is the opposition of Holy Russia to the pernicious West (the author personifies the first with Alexander III, the second — with Alexander II). Easiness of perception for reader is provided by a fictional style of presentation, where everything is presented — the style of a love story, and a novel-catastrophe, and detective investigation of the machinations of “killer doctors”. The third component of propaganda — the text is difficult for criticism, especially if the reader does not have the appropriate education and critical thinking skills.
Key words: nationalism, conservatism, liberalism, the Russian-French union, liberal reforms, railway construction.
CASUS OF MEDINSKY
Abstract. A major Russian medieval historian, who for several years headed the VAK's expert council on history, reflects on the mechanisms of academic attestation in Russia appealing to his own rich experience.
Key words: The Higher Attestation Commission (VAK), The historical community, V. Medinskiy’s dissertation thesis, hack-work, reputation.
Abstract. A well-known specialist in medieval Russian history and culture reflects on the scandalous thesis of the Minister of Culture V. Medinskiy, placing it in the context of the general unfavorable situation in Russia with the certification of academic personnel.
Key words: The Higher Attestation Commission (VAK), The historical community, Russian medieval history, V. Medinskiy’s dissertation thesis, hack-work, Dissernet.
Abstract. A well-known specialist in medieval Russian history and culture reflects on the scandalous thesis of the Minister of Culture V. Medinskiy, placing it in the context of the needs of the authorities in historical myth-making.
Keywords: The Higher Attestation Commission (VAK), The historical community, Russian medieval history, V. Medinskiy’s dissertation thesis, hack-work, propaganda, myth-making.
P. 310 V. V. Vedernikov. Undersized portrait (Round Table at the European University on November 24, 2016)
Key words: The Higher Attestation Commission (VAK), Dissernet, pseudoscience, hack-work, reputation.
Abstract.The material published below reflects the content of the round table, held on November 24, 2016 at the European University of St. Petersburg. The problems actual for Russian academic community which concern the decline in the quality of dissertations were discussed.
Abstract. At present, domestic historical science experiences the consequences of a large-scale scandal connected with the circumstances of awarding the academic degree of the doctor of historical sciences to the acting Minister of Culture of the Russian Federation V.R. Medinsky The article analyzes the reflection of the case of Medinsky — an unprecedented, even for contemporary Russia, story in the mirror of the Russian press (mass media) at all its stages, from the appearance of the first critical reviews of professional historians to the text of the “dissertation” in 2011-2012 to date.
Key words: domestic historical science, case of Medinsky, press.
Abstract. The well-known historian and leftist intellectual Alexander Shubin presents the reader not only the main steps of his academic biography, but also his experience in politics.
Key words: Perestroika, Socialism, Anarchism, Revolution of 1917 in Russia, Revolution in Spain, Soviet system.
Abstract. Outstanding linguist and semiotic Boris Uspenskiy remembers the main steps of his life and intellectual career.
Key words: linguistics, semiotics, the history of the Russian language, Lotman, Bakhtin.
Abstract. The historian of Russian culture Andrei Zorin reflects on the social role of historical myths, about public history, historical politics and historical memory.
Key words: myth, public history, historical politics, historical memory.
P. 368 Requirements for publication of articles and documents