Content of the issue 1(22)/2020

Download номер журнала Историческая Экспертиза 1 (22) 2020 



Global Memory

8 “Agonistic memory is open-endedly dialogic in a Bakthinian sense”. Inerview with S. Berger

Berger Stefan — Director of the Institute for Social Movements at Ruhr University Bochum (Germany), Chairman of the History of the Ruhr Foundation, Professor of Social History at the Ruhr University Bochum, Honorary Professory at Cardiff University (United Kingdom)

Key words: history and memory, memory and identity, transnational and national forms of memory, antagonistic and agonistic memories

Abstract. In his interview Stefan Berger discusses the role of the historical corporation in construction of the nation-state’s identity and memory. He argues that historians do not mistakenly combine history and memory in their research, but historiography is an inherent part of collective memory. Implementing their memory function historians played important role in the warlike
excitement before the First World War and in the current flow of nationalism, which has affected the majority of European countries. According to prof. Berger transnational forms of memory and identity are not able to resist to the antagonistic memory, which is generated by growing far-right movements. In his opinion the technologies of agonistic memory provide effective instruments for the peaceful dissolution of memory wars which are fraught by internal and external bloodshed conflicts.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-9-23



National memory


24  V. E. KELNER  Avraham Garkavi and the historical memory of Russian Jewry

Kelner Viktor E. — Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor European University at St. Petersburg
Key words: Jews, Russia, Lithuania, university, education, national characteristics, oriental studies, Jewish organizations, Jewish national consciousness, Jewish
historical memory.

Abstract. The work is devoted to the work of the famous Orientalist, Hebraist and Semitologist A. Ya. Garkavi on the study of the history of Jews in Russia. It actually determines for the first time its significance in the formation of the historical identity of Russian Jewry in the second half of the 19th — early 20th centuries. The article provides an analysis of a whole range of documents in the
archives of Russia, Ukraine and Israel.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-24-47


48  K. Yu. ERUSALIMSKY  Why do we need monuments to the Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible?

Erusalimsky Konstantin Yu. — doctor of historical sciences, leading researcher of the Center for scientific design, professor of the Department of history and theory of culture, Russian State University for Humanities (Moscow)
Key words: Ivan the Terrible, Moscow kingdom, historical politics, monumental culture, monumental propaganda.

Abstract. The author of the essay reflects on the attitude in today's Russia to the personality of Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible, reverence for him in certain circles of Russian society and analyzes the commemorative practice associated with this. Most of all he is occupied by the problem of the relationship between academic knowledge and public perception of the figure of the first Russian Tsar.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-48-73


74  “The property that was taken from the peasants became part of the memory”. Inerview with I. L. Shcherbakova

Shcherbakova Irina L. — candidate of philological sciences, Chairman of scientific information and educational centre “Memorial” (Moscow)
Key words: Society Memorial, public history, historical and educational activities, historical memory, repression, memory trauma.

Abstract. The topic of the conversation is the educational project of the Memorial society, the purpose of which is to introduce the younger generations to the knowledge of the tragic pages of modern Russian history.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-74-88


Actual problems of national memory of foreign countries


89  M. W. KYRCHANOFF  The great famine in irish memorial politics: cultural practices as a form of “Vergangenheitsbewältigung” and historical revisionism

Kyrchanoff Maksym V. — doctor of historical sciences, associate professor, Department of the regional studies and economics of foreign countries, Faculty of international relations, Voronezh State University (Voronezh)
Key words: Great Famine, Irish nationalism, historical imagination, revisionism, inventions of traditions.

Abstract. The author analyzes the features and main directions of Irish historical politics in contexts of the images of the Great Famine. Irish intellectuals and historians, like their colleagues in other European countries, have the unique experience of politically and ideologically motivated use of history.
Irish historiography was successful in its political manipulations until the end of the 1990s. The virtualization of culture and the rising influence of nationalist activists forced the authorities to change the tactics of imagination and invention of history. The political elites of Ireland began to use the methods of historical politics or politics of memory in their attempts to develop and maintain compromise canon of national identity. The “historical politics” of the Great Famine include several social and cultural practices and strategies.
Monumentalization, museification, literaturization, performance can be defined as the main tactics, elites and intellectuals use in their collective attempts to control history. The author presumes that Ireland, unlike other European countries, became an active player in historical politics too late: the elites tried to seize the initiative and weaken the nationalist activists, integrating them into
the state rituals and commemoration ceremonies of the Famine in the second half of the 2000s only.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-89-103


104 “Winter War is still understood as the existential experience and symbol of our independence will in the Finnish memory culture”. Inerview with H. Meinander

Meinander Henrik — Finnish historian, professorship in history at Helsinki University, foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (Finland)
Key words: Russification of Finland, independence of Finland, the civil war in Finland, the Winter war of 1939–1940, Finland in the Second World War, Carl Gustaf Mannerheim, Soviet-Finnish relations, Finnish historical memory.

Abstract. A famous Finnish historian in an exclusive interview for the Historical Expertise discusses the key problems of the historical memory of his people in the 20th century.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-104-111


112 “The Fate of Soviet Pows and Forced Laborers is Underrepresented in German Public Memory”. Interview with A. Hilger

Hilger Andreas — German historian, Dr., Deputy Director of the German historical Institute in Moscow (German)
Key words: German national memory, Soviet and German POWs, Ostarbeiters, The war of extermination, German deportees.

Abstract. In his interview regarding problems of German national memory Andreas Hilger is focusing on the memory of German and Soviet POWs, so called Ostarbeiters (forced laborers from Eastern Europe) and postwar German deportees from East European countries.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-112-118


Family memory


119  A. S. TULBURE   Bessarabian story, or the fate of Alexei Tulbure, a member of the special contingent of camp No. 0302

Tulbure Alexey S. — master of history, Director of the Institute for oral history of Moldova (Moldova)
Key words: family memory, Bessarabia, Soviet Moldova, repression, deportation, Sovietization, World War II.

Abstract. One of human destinies can be traced on the basis of archival documents and sources of personal origin in the context of the great history of the 20th century.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-119-133


Memory of the end of the cold war and the fall of communism in Eastern Europe (on the 30th anniversary of the events)


134 A. V. SHUBIN Informals in Perestroika

Shubin Aleksandr V.— doctor of historical sciences, chief researcher of the Institute of General history, RAS (Moscow)
Key words: perestroika, informal movement, Club of social initiatives, “Memory”, FSOK, “Community”, People’s Front.
Abstract. The article discusses the history of political informals — a network of legally operating socio-political organizations of the second half of the 80s.
Considering their formation, the first campaigns, splits and withdrawal from the forefront of the social movement, the author concludes that it was the political informal organizations of the second half of the 80s that became the creators of modern civil society in Russia and had an important impact on the Perestroika process and, therefore, the modern political culture of Russia.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-134-156


157 M. V. NOVIKOVA Historical policy of Helmut Kohl and M. S. Gorbachev: “Disputes of historians” and completion of “white spots”

Novikova Marina V. — candidate of historical sciences, Head of the Information and Analytical Sector of the Project Implementation Management Department of Social Projects and Communication of the Administration of Nizhny Novgorod
Key words: historical politics, World War II, “dispute of historians”, “white spots”, Moscow News, rethinking the past.

Abstract. In the article an attempt is undertaken to characterize two processes of rethinking the past that took place in the USSR and the Federal Germany in the second half of the 1980s: the replenishment of the “blank spots” of history (USSR) and the “dispute of historians” (FRG). The author sets a goal: to find out what was common and what was unique in each campaign, how they
influenced each other and the public consciousness. Since both discussions unfolded in the media, the main source of the article was primarily publications of the Perestroika and German press, as well as memoirs of participants in both processes.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-157-178


179 “Havel, Walesa could have a great relationship with Mikhail Gorbachev, but with the Secretary General of the Central Committee of the CPSU they were not on the way...” Inerview with T. A. Dzhalilov

Jalilov Timur A. — candidate of historical sciences, Head of the Department, Russian state archive of contemporary history (Moscow)
Key words: USSR foreign policy, Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, Organization of the Warsaw Pact, Eastern Europe, Perestroika, the crisis of communist regimes, the end of the Cold War, the unification of Germany, M. S. Gorbachev, Lech Wałęsa, Václav Havel.

Abstract. The topic of conversation between the two historians is the specific circumstances
of the fall of communist regimes in Eastern Europe at the end of the 1980s in the context of Perestroika and the cardinal changes that took place in the USSR.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-179-191


192 “Non-violent political changes are a tradition in Czech history”. Inerview with M. Macháček

Macháček Michal — Czech historian, Ph. D., author of a fundamental biography of Gustáv Husák (Czech)
Key words: August 21, 1968 intervention in Czechoslovakia, Gustáv Husák, normalization regime in Czechoslovakia, perestroika in the USSR, socialist crisis in Czechoslovakia, “velvet” revolution in Czechoslovakia, Václav Havel, Alexander Dubček, collapse of the Czechoslovak Federation.

Abstract. The Czech historian discusses the peculiarities of the historical development of Czechoslovakia in the 1970s and 1980s, the “velvet revolution” of 1989 and the disintegration of a single state of Czechs and Slovaks.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-192-207


208 N. N. MOROZOV  Romania 30 years later: from a total dictature to a “parallel state”? Reflections of a witness to the Romanian December revolution

Morozov Nikolay N. — candidate of philological sciences, TASS correspondent in Romania (Moscow)
Key words: Romania, December 1989 revolution, collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, European Union, Nicolae Ceaușescu, Ion Iliescu, Traian Băsescu, Klaus Johannis.

Abstract. The essay, combining an analysis of the party-political system of postcommunist Romania with a sketch of the impressions of a direct witness to the country's most important historical events, traces the political evolution of Romania over the past 30 years — after the December revolution of 1989, which led to the overthrow of the totalitarian regime of Ceauşescu. A review of political parties and alliances has been carried out, which may be of practical use to researchers involved in this period in the history of Romania. Based on numerous sources and direct conversations with Romanian politicians, some specific characteristics of the political process in the country are revealed. An attempt has been made to show the mechanism of political power that emerged after the collapse of the former totalitarian system.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-208-223


224 “From one dictatorship, we found ourselves in another...” Thirty years after the “system change”. A look from Budapest. Inerview with Z. Bíró

Bíró Zoltán — Hungarian historian and politician, Director of the Hungarian Institute for the study of the history of the «change of the system» (RETORKI) (Hungary)

Key words: Hungary, the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, liberal reforms, the European Union, migration, national values, Viktor Orbán.

Abstract. A prominent Hungarian conservative politician and historian, a moderate Eurosceptic, sets out his vision of the path that his country has traveled in the 30 years of the fall of communism.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-224-239


240 A. S. STYKALIN  Rev.: The Revolution of 1989. A Handbook / Wolfgang Mueller, Michael Gehler, Arnold Suppan, eds. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2015. 708 p.

Stykalin Aleksandr S.— candidate of historical sciences, coordinating researcher, Institute
for Slavonic Studies, RAS (Moscow)

Key words: Eastern Europe, Perestroika, M. S. Gorbachev, the collapse of communist
regimes, the end of the Cold War, the unification of Germany.

Abstract. The collective work published by the Austrian Academy of Sciences on the cardinal changes in the world at the turn of the 1980s–1990s is reviewed.
The fall of communism in Eastern Europe, the end of the Cold War, the unification of Germany, and their consequences for international relations are considered.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-240-255





256 B. L. KHAVKIN Jewish organizations in Nazi Germany

Khavkin Boris L. — doctor of historical sciences, Professor of IAI RSUH, editor of the Department of the magazine “New and modern history”

Key words: Jewish organizations in Nazi Germany, Left Zionist and Communist youth groups in Nazi Germany.

Abstract. German Jews became one of the first victims of Nazism and the target of the Holocaust. However, with all the attention of modern scholars to the Holocaust, the history of Jewish organizations that existed in Germany after the Nazis came to power in 1933 has not been studied historically enough in Germany and is practically unknown in Russia. The article discusses the history of Jewish organizations in the Third Reich. The Nazis did everything possible to deprive German Jews of their ability to express themselves, deprive them of their civil rights, property, livelihoods, cultural and educational institutions, freedom of assembly and the press, force them to balance on the brink of life and death, and then take away life itself.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-256-267


268 L. LUKS The struggle of Lev Trotsky against Hitler, Stalin and the Stalinist “theory of fascisms” (1930–1933)

Luks Leonid — professor, HSE, the Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt (Eichstätt, Germany — Moscow)

Key words: Lev Trotsky, Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, The Communist Party of Germany, Comintern, Social democracy, National socialism, Fascism, August Thalheimer, Georgy Fedotov.

Abstract. Sweeping polutical successes of the NADAP in the 1930s were closely connected with the misjudgements of this political force by ist opponents as well as by its allies. Among the few analysts of that time, who could recognize the extent of the Nazi threat, was the Communist dissident und the unbending opponent of Hitler and Stalin — Lev Trotsky. This article is dedicated to his warnings and forecasts.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-268-283


284 V. I. MUSAEV Carl Gustaf Mannerheim: hero of the russian history?

Musaev Vadim I. — doctor of historical sciences, Professor of the Department of international
relations of the Institute of international educational programs of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University; leading researcher of the SPbIH RAS (St. Petersburg)

Key words: C. G. Mannerheim, Finland, Russia, Finnish Civil War, World War Two, Siege of Leningrad.

Abstract: The article deals with the significance of C. G. Mannerheim, former Russian general, commander-in-chief of the Finnish army in 1918 and between 1939 and 1944, Finnish regent in late 1918 and 1919 and president of the Finnish republic between 1944 and 1946, in the history of Russia and Finland and in relations between these two countries. Special attention is paid to the part played by Mannerheim in the events of the World War Two, first of all as the commander-in-chief
during the period of participation of Finland in the war against the Soviet Union between 1941 and 1944, traditionally referred to in Finland as the “Continuation War” (Jatkosota). The point is in the first hand about participation of the Finnish troops in the siege of Leningrad. The article maintains that commemoration of Mannerheim as a hero of the Russian history is not quite appropriate.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-284-298



Generalizing studies


299 A. A. TESLYA Modernity and people. Rev.: Kapustin B. Rassuzhdeniia o “kontse revoliutsii”. Moscow: Izd-vo Instituta Gaidara, 2019. 144 p. (Seriia: Biblioteka zhurnala “Logos”)

Teslya Andrei A. — PhD in Philosophy, Senior Research Fellow, Scientific Director Research Center for Russian Thought, Institute for Humanities, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (Kaliningrad)

Key words: democracy, modern, people, political philosophy, revolution, modernity.

Abstract. In the framework of the discussion of the thesis about the “end of revolutions”, the key problems associated with the concept of “people” and the understanding of “revolution” as a key characteristic of “modernity” are analyzed.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-299-303


The world


304 N. P. TANSHINA The saga about the Bonapartes: reflections on Pierre Branda’s book. Rev.: Branda P. La saga des Bonapartes. Du XVIIIe siècle à nos jours. Paris: Perrin, 2018. 480 р.

Tanshina Nataliya P. — Dr. Hab. (History) professor of the General History Department, the Institute of Social Sciences, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration; Leading Researcher of the Laboratory of Western European and Mediterranean Historical Studies at the Faculty of History, State academic university for the humanities; professor of Modern History Chair, the Moscow Pedagogical State University (Moscow)

Key words: Pierre Branda, historiography, Napoleon Bonaparte, Bonapartes, the history of France, historical memory.

Abstract. The review is devoted to the analysis of the famous French historian’s book “the Saga about the Bonapartes”. The author, Pierre Branda, a specialist in the history of the Consulate and the First Empire, rightly points out that it would be absurd to dispute Napoleon's central role, but to be interested only in him and to isolate Napoleon from his family would be equally wrong. The fates
of some of the characters in the book are highly researched and well known to a reader; but the biographies of other members of the clan, especially of the XX–XXI centuries, are much less known. However, the characters, seemingly very researched in historiography, appear on the pages of this book, so to speak, in an updated form. The author of the book recreated a gallery of images of Bonapartes,including Charles Buonaparte, two emperors (Napoleon I and Napoleon III) and their sons, the brothers and sisters of Napoleon I, his niece Matilda and nephew nicknamed Plon-Plon, the representatives of the family, contemporaries of the twentieth century, as well as the current head of the Imperial house, Prince Charles-Christophe Bonaparte

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-304-312


313  A. A. TESLYA About François Guizot as a political philosopher. Rev.: Matveev S.R. Svoboda i poriadok: liberal’nyi konservatizm Fransua Gizo. Moscow: Izd. dom Vysshei shkoly ekonomki, 2019. 232 p.

Teslya Andrei A. — PhD in Philosophy, Senior Research Fellow, Scientific Director Research Center for Russian Thought, Institute for Humanities, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (Kaliningrad)

Key words: political philosophy, order, revolution, freedom.

Abstract. The interpretation of the political philosophy of François Guizot of the 1810s–1840s is given in the monograph paper by S. R. Matveev.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-313-316


317 M. V. BELOV Arrangement of a “place of memory”: SANU memorandum thirty years later. Rev.: Mihailović K. Krestić V. “Memorandum SANU” posle trideset godina. Beograd: NID Kompanija “Novosti” ad, 2017. 214 p.

Belov Michael V. — Ph.D., the Head of the Chair of Modern and Contemporary History at the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod

Key words: SANU Memorandum (1986), the collapse of Yugoslavia, Serbia, the politics of history.

Abstract. After thirty years, the SANU Memorandum (1986) is still an instrument of current politics of history and a special “place of memory” for Serbian society. There are many reasons for this: the ambiguity of the motives for compiling the document, the peculiarities of its publicity in the conditions of the destabilization of the communist regime, as well as further political use with opposite goals during the collapse of the Yugoslav Federation and military conflicts of the 1990s. The subject of analysis is, mainly, the memorialization strategies of the document applied by its leading authors under the official sanction of SANU.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-317-331


The Russian Empire


332 M. V. BATSHEV, A. A. KUNITSYN  Biography without hero? Rev.: Zazulina N. N. Kniaz’ A. N. Golitsyn. Neizvestnyi vo vsekh otnosheniiakh. Moscow: Boslen, 2019. 288 p.

Batshev Maxim V. — researcher of the Department of documentation of heritage and information technologies of the D. S. Likhachev Russian research Institute for cultural and natural heritage (Moscow)

Kunitsyn Alexander A. — independent researcher, MPGU (Moscow)

Key words: prince A. N. Golitsyn, era of Alexander I, Patriotic War of 1812, historical biographies.

Abstract. The reviewed biography of Prince A. N. Golitsyn leaves a feeling of dissatisfaction, not having solved the tasks set by the author.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-332-337


338 I. V. LUKOYANOV Rev.: Borodin A. P. Verkhovnaya vlast i obshchestvo Rossiyskoy imperii nachala XX stoletiya glazami sovremennikov. Kirov: Avers, 2018. 558 p.

Lukoyanov Igor V. — doctor of historical sciences, Deputy Director on scientific work, SPbIH RAS, Professor HSE (St. Petersburg)

Key words: Russian Empire, Russian society, Russian elite of the early XX century, State Council of the Russian Empire.

Abstract. The subject of the reviewed publication is the perception of the Russian political elite of the early XX century by the eyes of contemporaries.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-338-343


344 T. V. ANDREEVA A look at a serial project through the prism of one of the collections. Rev.: Istoriia i istoricheskaia pamiat’. Sbornik. Vyp. 4, pod red. d-ra ist. nauk, prof.V. Gladysheva. Saratov: Saratovskii gosudarstvennyi universitet, 2011. 280 p.

Andreeva Tatyana V. — doctor of historical sciences, leading researcher of the SPbIH RAS (St.Petersburg)

Key words: historical periodicals, the new history of Russia, general history, local history, historical biographies.

Abstract. Some typical features of contemporary Russian historical periodicals are viewes on the basis of one of the issues of the serial historical publication.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-344-355




356 T.A. MUHAMATULIN “Serious Fun”: Soviet Sport in Contemporary

Mukhamatulin Timur A.— PhD in historical sciences, doctoral student at Rutgers University (USA)

Key words: sport, Soviet Union, historiography, Cold War, gender, national issue in the USSR, Soviet society.

Abstract: This article describes the content of the main works on the history of Soviet sports. The author shows how the theme of sport is connected with the "big" topics of Soviet history, such as the history of Soviet society, gender history, the history of nationalities. Nevertheless, according to the author, there are significant historiographic gaps and further researches will improve understanding
of various aspects of Soviet history.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-356-365




366 P. G. CHEREMUSHKIN Brezhnev in the German mirror, or «Brezhnev’s doctrine» from beginning to end. Reflections of an era witness on a book by Susanne Schattenberg about Brezhnev. Rev.: Shattenberg S. Leonid Brezhnev. Velichie i tragediia cheloveka i strany. Moscow: ROSSPEN, 2018. 623 p.

Cheremushkin Petr G. — candidate of art history, associate Professor of the Moscow State linguistic University (Moscow)

Key words: Leonid Brezhnev, the era of stagnation in the history of the USSR, the foreign policy of the USSR, the invasion of five countries' troops in Czechoslovakia in 1968, the 1979 invasion of Afghanistan, the Polish crisis of 1980–1981, the policy of detente, the Summit on security and cooperation in Europe in 1975.

Abstract. The subject of the reviewed monograph paper of the German historian Susanne Schattenberg — Leonid Brezhnev and his era in the history of the USSR.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-366-375




376 A. V. GRINЁPseudomemoirs of the german tank trooper Wolfgang Faust. Rev.: Faust V. Sledy «Tigra». Frontovye zapiski nemetskogo tankista. 1944, per. s nem. V. D. Kaidalova. Moscow: ZAO Tsentrpoligraf, 2017. 191 p. (Za liniei fronta. Memuary)

Grinёv Andrei V. — doctor of historical sciences, professor in the Department of History at Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in St. Petersburg

Key words: World War II, Eastern Front, tank battles, T-IV “Tiger” tank, military memoirs.

Abstract. The review is devoted to a critical analysis of the notes of the German tank trooper Wolfgang Faust, the driver of the Tiger tank in battles on the Eastern Front in the fall of 1944. The author of the review makes an unambiguous conclusion that these pseudo-memoirs are a fictional literary work that, in principle, cannot be used as historical source.

DOI 10.31754/2409-6105-2020-1-376-383


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