Content of the issue 2(15)/2018
National memory. Narrative templates of national memory
Abstract. In his interview James Wertsch talks about his family roots, about the origin his interest in Russian culture, about his postgraduate studies in the USSR, about his researches of the Lev Vygotsky ideas and the translations of his works. Special attention is paid to the differences between Russian and American narrative templates. Wertsch believes that understanding these differences has not only an academic interest. The analysis of Russian-American relations in the light of the concept of narrative templates can have a practical use as well.
Key words: family memory, collective memory, Lev Vygotsky, the concept of narrative templates, Russian-American relations.
Abstract. Analyses of the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine often focus on the views of leaders, but this misses the larger point that these views are “mediated” by symbols provided by national communities. This issue is examined in terms of narrative tools that “co-author” the statements of national leaders. Ideas drawn from Lev Vygotsky and Ernst Cassirer are used to examine these tools and how they support the Russian mnemonic community. In addition to examining the surface narratives usually included in such analyses, this involves understanding the underlying mental habits of a national community. In the Russian case, these habits are viewed as reflecting a “narrative template” called the “Expulsion-of-Alien-Enemies.” This underlying code, which has deep historical roots and applies to multiple events in Russia’s past, makes much of its impact through “fast thinking” rather than through conscious reflective thinking, and its veiled nature contributes to “mnemonic standoffs” between Ukraine and Russia.
Key words: collective memory, national memory, symbolic mediation, fast thinking, narrative templates, Russia, Ukraine, mnemonic standoff.
P. 33 Is it possible to go beyond the narrative template? Russian view of the concept of an american professor. Discussion about James V. Wertsch’s article “Narrative Tools, Truth, and Fast Thinking in National Memory: A Mnemonic Standoff between Russia and the West over Ukraine”
Abstract. Eleven Russian academics took part in the discussion of James Wertsch’s article “Narrative Tools, Truth, and Fast Thinking in National Memory: A Mnemonic Standoff between Russia and the West over Ukraine”. Most of the participants subjected the concept of the Russian narrative template “Expulsion-of-Alien-Enemies” to harsh criticism. It is noteworthy that a number of colleagues refused to participate in the discussion. Some of them considered that Wertsch tries to justifie Putin’s foreign policy, while others found Wertsch a Russophobe. And the critical statements of the participants in the discussion and the polar motivations of those who refused to participate show that Verch touched upon an important nerve of Russian political culture. In the final section of the discussion, Verch responds to the remarks of his critics.
Key words: collective memory, political culture, the concept of narrative templates.
Actual problems of national memory of foreign countries
Abstract. Bulgarian historian Rumiana Mikhneva discusses the most painful points of the Bulgarian national historical memory, touching on the sharpest moments in the national and territorial conflicts in the Balkans.
Key words: Bulgaria, historical memory, the Russian-Turkish war of 1877–1878, national-territorial conflicts in the Balkans, the Peace treaty of 1878 in San Stefano, the Berlin Congress of 1878, the Balkan wars of 1912–1913.
Abstract. One of the leading historians of contemporary Hungary, Academy member Gábor Gyáni, referring primarily to the historical experience of the Austro-Hungarian dualism, presents his opinion on some important issues of the Hungarian historical memory.
Key words: Hungary, Austro-Hungary, Austro-Hungarian dualism, Budapest, interethnic relations in Central Europe, Emperor Franz Joseph Habsburg, national discourse in history.
Abstract. The prominent Romanian historian Ioan Scurtu touches on the complex and often very painful problems of the common past in the RussianRomanian relations of the last two centuries.
Key words: Romania, Russian-Romanian relations, Bessarabian issue, the results of the First World War.
Chronicle of historical policy
Abstract. Speaking in March 2018 at the celebration of the 140th anniversary of Bulgaria’s liberation from Ottoman rule, President Rumen Radev expressed gratitude not to a single Russian army, but to individual peoples who helped the Bulgarians in the liberation struggle. Radev’s speech became an object of controversy on the part of the head of the Russian Orthodox Church, Patriarch Kirill.
Key words: Russia, Bulgaria, Russian-Turkish war of 1877–1878, Russian Orthodox Church, Patriarch Kirill.
P. 128 V. A. Solonari. Rev.: Stephen Kotkin, Stalin Vol. 1: Paradoxes of Power, 1878-1928 (New York: Penguin, 2014) xxi, 949 pp. Vol. 2: Waiting for Hitler, 1929-1941 (NewYork: Penguin, 2017)xxix, 1154 pp.
Abstract. This review of two first volumes of Stalin’s biography Stephen Kotkin focuses on his original interpretations of the most important aspects of Soviet history. Among them are power struggle with the Bolshevik party in the 1920s, collectivization of agriculture, Great terror, and Soviet foreign policy.
Key words: Stalin, Biography, power struggle, Great Terror, foreign policy.
Abstract. A review of a recent synthesis on the history of Bolivia published by the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Key words: Bolivia, Latin America, Andes, Simon Bolivar.
P. 155 A. A. Soldatov. Historical science between Scylla and Charybdis: the PolishSoviet scientific relations in 1945-1964. Rev.: Szumski J. Polityka a historia. ZSRR wobec nauki historycznej w Polsce w latach 1945—1964. Warszawa: Instytut Historii Nauki im. Ludwika i Aleksandra Birkenmajerów Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 2016. 429 s.
Abstract. A monograph devoted to the influence of the Soviet factor on the development of historical science in Poland of the first post-war decades is reviewed.
Key words: Poland, the USSR, the Soviet-Polish relations, the Soviet factor, the Historical Studies.
P. 163 T. M. Simonova. Rev.: Dymitri Filosofow. Pisma wybrane / Wybór i opracowanie: P. Mitzner.T. 1: TrudnaRosja (1902-1916). 299 s.; T. 2: Rosjaninw Polsce (1920-1936). 510 s. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Kardyna a Stefana Wyszy skiego, 2015
Abstract. The review is devoted to the publication of selected articles and essays by D.V. Filosofov of the period 1902–1936 in 2 volumes, translated into Polish.
Key words: D.V. Filosofov, „Mir iskusstva”, Russian emigration, emigration in Poland, „activism”.
The Russian Empire
P. 183 A. A. Teslya. Persons and norms: the Russian general-governors in the Imperial policy and the management system of Central Asia. Rev.: Pochekaev R.Yu. Gubernatory i hany. Lichnostnyi faktor pravovoi politiki Rossiiskoi imperii v Central’noi Azii: XVIII — nachalo XX v. — M.: Izd. dom Vysshei shkoly ekonomiki, 2017. — 384 s.
Abstract. The study on the methods of governing of Central Asia by the authorities of the Russian Empire is reviewed.
Key words: Russian Empire, Central Asia, Turkestan, national areas, local authorities, management methods, legal bases of management.
P. 188 S.F. Udartsev. Anarchism in the Russian revolution. Rev.: Talerov P.I. Klassicheskii anarhizm v teorii i praktike rossiiskogo revolyucionnogo dvizheniya. 1860-e — 1920-e gg. Monografiya. — SPb.: Institut inostrannyh yazykov, 2016. — 460 s.
Abstract. The study on the ideology and political practice of classical anarchism in Russian revolutionary movement is reviewed.
Key words: Russian Empire, revolutionary movement, anarchism, M. A. Bakunin, P. A. Kropotkin.
P. 198 V. Venglewicz. Rev.: Benua S. Aleksandr Aleksandrov. Ansambl’ i zhizn’. M.: Izdatel’stvo “Algoritm”, 2017. 110 s.
Abstract. This article is the review of S.Benoit’s book “Alexander Alexandrov. Ensemble and life”. It tells the story of life of prominent composer and conductor Alexander Vasiljevich Alexandrov, and also about Song and Dance Ensemble of the Soviet Army, created by him. The review author analyzed a book content by a critical approach to it.
Key words: about Song and Dance Ensemble of the Soviet Army, the Red Army, Alexander Alexandrov.
P. 204 O. E. Zubko. Emigrants and repatriates of the 20th century. Rev.: Slepuhinskie chteniya — 2014. — SPb.: Fond Slepuhina. ID “Petropolis”, 2015. — 718 s., il.
Abstract. The published materials of the Slepukhin Readings — a conference on the history of Russian emigration and repatriation in the XX century are reviewed.
Key words: Russian emigration, culture of the Russian emigration, repatriation, Yu.G. Slepukhin, D. I. Chizhevsky.
Abstract. A critical response to a new book on the history of the Napoleon’s Russian campaign of 1812 is published.
Key words: the military campaign of 1812, Napoleon, Alexander I, Kutuzov, the Battle of Borodino.
HISTORY IN TEXTBOOKS
Abstract. The interpretation in the Russian textbook on the accession of the Crimea to Russia in 2014 triggered a reaction in the Federation Council of Russia.
Key words: Crimea, Ukraine, events of 2014 in Ukraine, textbooks on history.
P. 232 N. A. Mogilevsky. The Russian revolution of 1917 in Russian school textbooks of the 1990–2000.
Abstract. Author of the article analyzes the problem of the Russian revolution of 1917 in Russian school textbooks of the 1990-s–2000-s. The focus is on new approaches and problems posed after the collapse of the Soviet system of education.
Key words: Russian revolution, 1917, teaching, history, school, school textbook, Vladimir Lenin.
P. 240 Ya. I. Maltsev. “Strange politicization”: the November revolution in the educational literature of Germany
Abstract. The article refers to the image of the November Revolution of 1918 in Germany in the German educational literature of different epochs and relating to different political systems.
Key words: the November revolution of 1918 in Germany, the First World War, the modern and contemporary history of Germany, Nazism, the German Democratic Republic, textbooks on history.
SELF-ORGANIZATION OF SCIENCE
Abstract. The section “Self-organization of science” refers to the activities of new international institutions designed to intensify the dialogue of historians of different countries in the interests of improving mutual understanding.
Key words: historical memory, international cooperation of historians, the Holocaust, Russian-Ukrainian relations.
SOCIAL PROBLEMS OF HUMANITIES
Abstract. In the mass and, more importantly, in the corporate minds there is still a belief that Soviet science, especially in the post-war period, was an ideal model of the scientific community. This model completely lacks any negative features associated with modern scientific life: plagiarism, low quality of dissertations, careerism, imitation of scientific activity, uselessness and separation from reality, etc. All this, according to this narrative, is a sign of the post-Soviet period. Such an idealization hardly contributes to the analysis and understanding of the basic problems that hamper the development and consolidation of the scientific community today. In this article, we would like to show those problems of Soviet science in the 1950s–1980s that turned out to be in public discourse, and compare them with current topics. The objectives of the article: a) show the continuity of problems in Soviet and Russian science, b) discuss the relationship of power to science through the prism of the satirical press.
Key words: cartoon, history of science, USSR, “Crocodile”, Soviet history, visiotype.
INSTITUTE OF SCIENTIFIC REPUTATIONS
Abstract. “Medinsky case” reveals a crisis of academic reputations in Russia, compromised by the rush of incompetent people with high academic degrees. To overcome the crisis, a more or less wide revision of academic reputations is required, and the article of S. Zenkin sketches out some practical issues of this procedure. In the interviews some mechanisms of the Dissernet activities are revealed.
Key words: institutional problems; academic reputation; academic expertise, Dissernet.
MUSEUMS AND EXHIBITIONS
Abstract. An interview is published with the organizer of the exhibition, which aims to reflect differences in views in different countries on the same events of the Second World War.
Key words: World War II, historical memory, historical exposition, Germany, Poland, Baltic countries.
Abstract. A prominent Russian expert on the Byzantine history reflects on the Byzantine influence on Russian statehood and culture, on the relationship between culture and power, science and government in different epochs, and concerns some other issues actual for the Russian academic community.
Key words: Byzantium, Constantinople, the Moscow Kingdom, Russian state tradition, culture and power, academic community and government.
Abstract. Outstanding Russian historian, expert on Russian and Slavic medieval history remembers the main steps of his life, assesses some key events and personalities of Russian history.
Key words: the Moscow Kingdom, Ivan the Terrible, Time of Troubles in Russian history, Russian-Polish relations, the historical studies in the USSR in the era of Khruschev’s Thaw.
P. 352 Requirements for publication of articles and documents