Content of the issue 3(16)/2018
Abstract. There is a “theoretical” assumption that a researcher should be emotionally distanced from the object of his or her research. Maybe it is relevant for physics, chemistry and biology but not for humanistic studies. We are always emotionally involved but do not always reflect on that. You are the author of the concept of postmemory, which plays a crucial role in current memory studies. I have just finished reading your and your husband Leo Spitzer’s book “Ghosts of Home: The Afterlife of Czernowitz in Jewish Memory”. The core of it is based on your personal postmemory. It is an excellent “laboratory”, which impressively demonstrates that personal background of a researcher is not an obstacle but, on the contrary, is a powerful source for creation of historical research and theoretical concepts. It would be very interesting to have a discussion about how your family experience influenced your work in memory studies. “Ghosts of Home” is not translated into Russian; therefore I have to ask some biographical questions.
Key words: Marianne Hirsh, post-memory, personal experience, family experience, Czernowitz (Cernauti, Chernovtsy, Chernivtsy), Rumanian Holocaust, Stalin’s repressions.
Abstract. What does it mean to survive or to inherit traumatic events that have failed to be worked through a Longue durée of many decades? Our essay focuses on historical catastrophes that have been forgotten or denied and eluded the assumption of responsibility, judicial recognition, or acknowledgment by both national and transnational bodies. We look specifically at the work and the reception of one unknown very young writer and her poetic testimony, in the context of other artists who were deported to Transnistria, an area that was annexed by Romania during the Second World War and became a “forgotten cemetery” in which hundreds of thousands of Jews, Roma, and political prisoners perished. Yet, just as Transnistria’s history fails to fit common conceptions of Holocaust persecution and murder, much of the vibrant intellectual and artistic activity that took place in its ghettos and camps also largely fails to fit the paradigms of Holocaust art or literature. Transnistria’s artists from the wartime era, both visual and literary, remain little known. Our research into their work aims to illuminate this little-known chapter of Holocaust history, while also asking larger questions about possibilities of repair and redress in the aftermath, and the needs of those of us in the postmemorial generation who inherit these painful histories.
Key words: Romanian Holocaust, Transnistria, children’s concentration camp poetry, postmemory, repair, redress, reparative reading.
Abstract. This essay is about the use of oral and visual sources for the reconstruction of a family history disrupted by the trauma of the Shoah and about the peculiar condition, in between memory and postmemory, of baby survivors, whose life was imprinted by that incipit, and whose personal memory was partially mediated by their parents’ telling about those tragic years. In this first attempt at dealing directly in a public oral exposition and written text with the experience of the Shoah and World War II lived by her family and herself as a baby child, the author, an Italian scholar of American literature and a Jewess, focuses on the experience of her father Alberto, an Italian Jew who was active in the antifascist movement of “Giustizia e Libertà” (Justice and Liberty), and especially on the peculiar story of her mother, Alice (Lisa) Feldstein, who grew up in Jewish Vienna in the 1920s-1930s, and whose face as a high school student, appearing in a 1931 class photograph from the Jewish high school of the city, the “Chajes Jüdisches Realgymnasium,” later inspired a contemporary painter artist, Christian Boltanski, in his endeavor to create a visual memory of the Holocaust. The essay traces the various steps through which that life-story passed on from the former Viennese student to her Italian children, first simply by passionate oral telling, and then, only many decades later, through the surprising discovery of that class photograph published on the cover of a book on pre-World-War-II Jewish Vienna. It then tells the story of the artistic installations by Christian Boltanski, his “Chajes Altars” (1986-87), inspired by that school picture in the mid-1980s, showing how —in a meaningful “intersection of private and public history” (Marianne Hirsch, Family Frames)— the private family story of a Jewish youngster’s commitment, persecution, and survival could be used and creatively transformed into a public visual document for the transmission of a universal memory about the Shoah. One finally reflects on the various issues — the gains and the losses — involved in this transaction, on the usefulness of filling in that symbolically universal, but blank image with some knowledge about a represented person’s real life story, and on how those traumatic stories and events of a recent past can be actively engraved in the civic formation of future citizens.
Key words: Jewish Vienna, Alice (Lisa) Feldstein Mortara, Chajes Jewish high school, Anschluss, Mazzesinsel, class photograph, Christian Boltanski, Chajes Altar, Shoah, Holocaust, memory and postmemory, baby survivors.
Abstract. In August 1942, Hitler, because of the large losses on the Eastern front announced the call under the banner of the Wehrmacht more than 130 thousand young people from the annexed territories of Alsace and Lorraine, and 10 of thousands of young men from Luxembourg. Most of them have not experienced the desire to serve the Reich, called himself "malgrénous"soldiers captive and surrendered in the hope to get into the army of General de Gaulle. But they got to the station Happy in the pow camp No. 188 near Tambov, as evidenced by the documents stored in State archive of the Tambov region, and memoirs of former prisoners of war. Several thousand malgré-nous stayed on many camp graveyards.
Key words: Second world war, Alsace and Lorraine, malgré-nous, pow camp No. 188, social history, the reconciliation over the graves.
P. 83 G.F. Matveev. The Second World War in the perception of Russians and Poles
Abstract. The article discusses differences in the perception of the Second World War in Polish and Russian society, due to the peculiarity of the mass historical consciousness cultivated in them.
Key words: USSR / Russia, Poland, the Second World War, the Great Patriotic War, historical memory.
«Russia is my history»: the network of historical parks
Abstract. The article analyzes exhibitions covering the history of Russia from the early medieval period through up to the epoch of president Putin that were arranged in the Moscow Manezh hall in 2013 to 2016. They were organized mostly by the Moscow Patriarchy, with a desire, first, to emphasize the key role of the Russian Orthodoxy in the history of Russia and also to rehabilitate monarchy. The article focuses on two periods, which covered princedoms and the Russian empire. These exhibitions were highly tendentious and reductionist. They romanticized pre-revolutionary Russia and autocratic rule, explained all the downsides and failures with a reference to internal and external enemies’ plots, and used to indoctrinate the visitors with an idea of a special historical track of Russia, which appeared to be ultra-conservative one, based on a resource-based economy and an aggressive militarism. In addition, exhibitions were characterized with a modernization of history and an aspiration to use it instrumentally in favor of the current policy. The article of V. A. Shnirelman is accompanied by the response of a highly qualified observer about one of the Russian historical parks, as well as a replica of one of the organizers of the project “Russia is my story”, who told us about the work started on re-exposure of the Moscow historical park at the All-Russian Exhibition Center.
Key words: history of Russia, exhibitions, Church, historical politics.
Memory of trauma
Abstract. The daughter of a prominent figure in the Bolshevik party, an economist and diplomat Grigory Sokolnikov, who fell victim to Stalin's repressions, tells of her difficult fate.
Key words: G. Ya. Sokolnikov, Stalinist repressions, the great trials of the 1930s, political exile in the USSR, G. I. Serebryakova, Kazakhstan of the 1930s–1950s.
Karl Marx’s bicentennial anniversary
Abstract. The basic economic ideas expressed in Marx's “Capital” were erroneous, and the understanding of their fallacy became the commonplace of economic science by the beginning of the twentieth century. The marginalist revolution that took place at the end of the 19th century did not allow Marxism to have any significant influence on the development of economic thought, although the so-called Contradiction between Volume I and III of “Capital” drew a lively discussion throughout the twentieth century, and Marx's study of the economic cycle affected the popularity of this topic among economists. Marx's economic ideas had the greatest impact on the rapprochement of the problems of economics and history — and here the direct followers of Marx were the sociologists of the German historical school Sombart and Max Weber, the founder of American institutionalism Thorstein Veblen and the entire French Écoles des Annales.
Key words: Marx, Marxism, economics, political economy, marginalism, institutionalism, mathematics, German economic school, Annales, exploitation, rate of profit, labor theory of value.
Abstract. The article critically examines from the modern point of view the basic conceptual ideas of K. Marx, which still retain their significance for historical science. Marx also appears in the article as a public figure who made a great contribution to the formation of the left movement. Practicing philosopher Marx is shown in his evolution, in the struggle with his contemporaries, not inferior to him in influence on the formation of the socialist movement, especially with P.J. Prudon and M. A. Bakunin. The author analyzes the reasons for the success of Marx's school after his death and points to the limits of Marxism applicability.
Key words: Marx, Prudon, Bakunin, socialism, communism, alienation, International.
P. 178 E.N. Strukova. On the threshold of change: round table on Karl Marx’s bicentennial anniversary
Abstract. The „Historical expertise” publishes a brief overview of the international roundtable on the 200th anniversary of the birth of Karl Marx, organized by the State Public Historical Library.
Key words: Marx, Engels, The Manifest of the Communist Party, the European revolutions of 1848–1849.
Abstract. The „Historical Expertise” comments the attempts to close in Budapest the archive of the world-famous Hungarian Marxist philosopher György Lukács, placing them in the broader context of the historic policy of the government of Victor Orbán.
Key words: Hungary, György Lukács, the Western Marxism, Viktor Orbán, the historical policy.
Chronicle of historical policy
Abstract. The „Historical Expertise” responded to an attempt оf one of the historical magazines to reassess, contrary to long ago published documents from the archives, a view on the true initiators of the Katyń massacre of 1940.
Key words: World War II, the Soviet-Polish relations, Katyń.
Abstract. The data on the scale of human casualties in the Polish camps for prisoners of war, dating back to the times of the Soviet-Polish war of 1919- 1921, became the subject of the discussion.
Key words: The Red Army, the Soviet-Polish war, prisoners of war, Katy , Russian-Polish relations.
Abstract. Articulated in the twenties, the doctrines oft he exiled Russian „Evraziistvo” movement are undergoing a renaissance in Russia today. As the „Evraziistvo” movement counted among the most original ideological currents of the Russian diaspora, association with ist doctrines could well add to the reputation of the given group or groups. This is the case with the journal „Elementy” which was created in 1992 by Alexander Dugin. „Elementy” considers itself as the inheritor of „classical Evraziistvo”. Is this claim justified? The article is addressed to this question.
Key words: The Evraziistvo movement, geopolitics, Elementy, Alexander Dugin, conservative revolution, national bolshevism, national socialism, liberalism.
Excesses of historical policy. About the attack on the painting of I.E. Repin
Abstract. The „Historical expertise” comments in the context of the contemporary historical consciousness in Russia the attempt of a visitor of the State Tretyakov Gallery to destroy Ilya Repin's picture of Ivan the Terrible killing his son.
Key words: Ivan the Terrible, historical politics in modern Russia, Ilya Repin, historical painting, the State Tretyakov Gallery.
AS IT ACTUALLY WAS
P. 214 A. A. Rybalka. «We are Ramenskie»: such a good myth
Key words: mystification, genealogy, clergymen, Mologino, spiritual, teacher, bedridden.
Abstract. The article discusses the details of the origin and biography of An tonin Ramensky (1913–1985), the author of a large-scale hoax „Ramensky's Teacher's Dynasty”, which had a great resonance in the Soviet press of the 60s80s. Despite the exposure of the main areas of mystification of Ramensky in the late 80-x-90-ies., it still remains relevant in the pedagogical and local lore press. The author took the liberty to investigate the origin of the ancestors of the mystifier, which are key in his fantasies and briefly presents his result to readers.
Key words: the sources of the World War I, the Russian Empire, the patriotic myth, the relations of power and population in Russia.
Abstract. In the article the phenomenon of „patriotic sentiments” of summer of 1914 is analyzed which has received ambiguous assessment in a historiography and differently presented in various groups of sources. The author pays attention to attempt of authorities in the summer-fall of 1914 to create „the patriotic myth” about a unification of the power and the people, though moods of a general population were less certain. On the basis of studying of statements of representatives of various social groups the conclusion is made about the contradictory and paradoxical nature of „patriotism” which could include revolutionary moods.
Abstract. The reviewed study focuses on the life and work of the greatest historian of the Russian diaspora Georgy V. Vernadsky.
Key words: Russian emigration, Eurasianism, history of Russia, historiography.
P. 262 K. A. Pakhalyuk. (In)compatible genocides? Rev.: Auron Ya. Gosudarstvo Izrail’ i pamyat’ o genocide armyan: ot ravnodushnogo otricaniya — k zapozdalomu priznaniyu / pod red. A.D. Epshteina. M.: ID «Doluhanov», 2017. 312 s.
Abstract. This is a review of the Y. Auron book devoted to the perception of the Armenian genocide in Israel. The main task was to put the research in the context of discussion about global memory.
Key words: genocide, Holocaust, global memory, the ethics of responsibility.
Abstract. The synthetic work is reviewed in which the processes of de-Stalinization and rehabilitation of victims of repressions after 1953 are researched on the database of a number of countries of Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, including the post-Soviet space, and the specifics of this process are revealed in individual countries.
Key words: Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Stalinism, repression, deStalinization, rehabilitation.
The Russian Empire
P. 283 G.N. Ulianova. Rev.: Blagotvoritel’nost’ v Sankt-Peterburge. 1703– 1918. Istoricheskaya enciklopediya / Nauch. red. i sost.: Kerzum A.P., Leikind O.L., Severyuhin D.Ya. — SPb.: Liki Rossii, 2016. — 752 c.: il.
Abstract. The review presents one of the best recent books on the history of charity and philanthropy in Russia, such as ‘Philanthropy in St. Petersburg, from 1703 to 1918. Historic encyclopedia’, published in 2016. The work includes the general historic overview of St. Petersburg charity for two centuries, the chronicle of main dates in philanthropy, and 456 articles about the local philanthropic institutions.
Key words: charity, poor relief, philanthropy, 18th and 19th Centuries Russian History, Imperial Russia, donations, St Petersburg, Likhachev Foundation.
P. 292 M. V. Medovarov. Between Poetry and Bureaucracy: A New Study on Ivan Aksakov. Rev: Motin S.V. Rossiiskii slavyanofil na pravoohranitel’noi sluzhbe. I. S. Aksakov -— sotrudnik ministerstva justicii i ministerstva vnutrennih del Rossiiskoi imperii. Ufa: Ufimskii YuI MVD Rossii, 2017. 169 s.
Abstract. The review is devoted to Sergey Motin’s monograph on the years of state service of Ivan Aksakov. It is considered in the context of the multivolume “Ivan Aksakov. Materials for the Chronicle of Life and Creativity” prepared and published by Motin himself. The reasons for the increasing interest in Ivan Aksakov’s heritage in contemporary historical science are analyzed. Motin’s monograph is considered in comparison with other works of recent years on this topic. The individual fate of Aksakov with his early resignation from the ministerial service is interpreted as an example of the transformation of values and life priorities that began in the middle of the nineteenth century in the Russian society of the Great Reform era. There is traced the connection between the earliest works of Aksakov in the 1840s with his later Slavophilism.
Key words: Slavophilism, historiography, bibliography, liberalism, conservatism, Ivan Aksakov.
P. 300 M. V. Batshev. «Russian patriot with the thinking of a Western skeptic» (experience of modern apologetics). Rev.: Portnoi L.M. Graf Rostopchin. Istoriya nezauryadnogo generalgubernatora Moskvy. M., Boslen 2017. 452 p.
Abstract. For the first time the reader is offered a complete and detailed biography of one of the key figures of the reign of Emperor Alexander I Fyodor Rostopchin.
Key words: history of the XIX century, the Patriotic war of 1812, biography.
P. 305 N. P. Tanshina. In the whirlwind of the civil wars: meditations on the book by A.V. Ganin. Rev.: Ganin A.V. «Povsednevnaya zhizn’ genshtabistov pri Lenine i Trotskom». M.: Kuchkovo pole, 2016. 680 s.: il.; 2-e izd., isp.: M.: Kuchkovo pole, 2017. 680 s.: il.
Abstract. The review is devoted to the monograph of the doctor of historical sciences, the leading researcher of the Institute of Slavic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, A.V. Ganin „The everyday life of the General Staff members under Lenin and Trotsky”. The book of A.V. Ganin allows to understand the phenomenon of civil war and to make a comparative analysis of the Civil War in Russia and the civil wars of modern history in Europe and the United States (the Civil War in the United States, the Huguenot (civil) wars in France, the Epoque of Reformation in Germany, the Carlist wars of the 1830—1840s in Spain), make conclusions about their common features and differences, and identify the main patterns in the development of domestic and foreign historiography of civil wars. The monograph of A.V. Ganin suggests the reflection on the force of stereotypes and myths in historical memory and historiographical tradition.
Key words: Civil war in Russia, historical memory, historiography, the history of everyday life, V. I. Lenin, L. D. Trotsky, historical myths and stereotypes.
P. 320 S. I. Murtuzaliev. Memory of the Russian-Turkish war of 1877–1878. Rev.: Russko-tureckaya voina: russkii i bolgarskii vzglyad. 1877–1878. Sbornik vospominanii. M.: Yauza-press, 2017. 512 s.
Abstract. The collection of memoirs, reflecting the Russian and Bulgarian views on the Russian-Turkish war of 1877–1878, is being reviewed.
Key words: Eastern Crisis of 1875–1878, Russian-Turkish War of 1877–1878, Russian Empire, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, Balkans, memoirs.
Abstract. A collection of essays on three key figures in the history of Russian intellectual life is reviewed, and the problem of the relevance of their spiritual experience and the universality of their language in the light of today's challenges is pointed at its sharpness.
Key words: Russian public and political thought, Karamzin, Chaadaev, Herzen, historical essays.
P. 329 V. V. Tikhonov. Post-totalitarian historiographies in search of themselves. Rev.: Kappes O. «Voinstvennaya» nauka: Prorabotka proshlogo diktatur v germanskoi i rossiiskoi istoriografiyah vtoroi poloviny XX veka. M.: AIRO-XXI, 2015. 352 s.
Abstract. The review deals with the monograph of O. Kappes „Militant” science: Study of the past dictatorships in the German and Russian historiographies of the second half of the XX century. It is concluded that this innovative comparative work allows us to take a fresh look at the Soviet historical science.
Key words: Soviet historiography, „militant” science, totalitarianism.
Abstract. For Whom the Shredder Buzzes: contemporary scientific (pseudo) research on the history of Bulgaria and Serbia late XIX — early XX centuries. In this paper we consider a number of illustrative articles on the history of Bulgaria and Serbia late XIX — early XX centuries, published in periodical from the list of HAC and included in the RSCI. The author draws attention to their noresearch character and identifies three typical features: a loud name, lack of sources, ignorance of historiography.
Key words: Bulgaria, Serbia, science, scientometric indicators.
HISTORY AT UNIVERSITIES
Abstract. The interview with the doctor of historical Sciences Natalya Petrovna Tanshina about the studies in Russia of French history of the nineteenth century is published.
Key words: history of XIX century, Russian Empire, France.
Abstract. The founder of the Oral History Foundation tells the story how he came to historical science, and how the Oral History Foundation functions, and how personal memory is changing.
Key words: oral history, Victor Duvakin, private history, Russian State University of Humanities, Moscow State University library.
Abstract. In the interview, the historian Mikhail Melnichenko tells the story how the project “It was lived” appeared, an electronic archive of personal diaries. Mikhail Melnichenko also talks about his work on the compilation of the book “Soviet anecdote (index of plots)”.
Key words: anecdote, diary, memory, personal memory, volunteers.
Abstract. Journalist Andrei Borzenko talks about the educational projects of the „Story of the Future” studio. The first among them is dedicated to the centenary anniversary of the February and October revolutions („Project 1917”). The second is the „Map of History” — a hypertext game.
Key words: game, revolution, social network, „history of the future”, „project 1917”, „map of history”, scientific journalism.
HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY
Abstract. The expert in geography argues on the geographical aspects of historical and national memory, on the impact of large-scale historical processes on a country's geography, changes in the natural and cultural landscape.
Key words: geographical expertise, spatial representations, places of memory, cultural landscapes, cultural boundaries, the price of modernization.
Key words: nationalism, national identity, ethnic history, national identity, the construction of the nation, the history of Ukraine.
Abstract. The historian and writer from Yekaterinburg expresses his point of view on a number of key problems in the formation of national identity.
Abstract. A well-known political scientist, sociologist and publicist who has direct experience of working in the state structures in the 1990s, recalls the Yeltsin era and talks about a project on writing its history
Key words: Yeltsin, Yeltsin era, modern history, political expertise, public opinion, methods of exact sciences in the humanities.
P. 412 Requirements for publication of articles and documents