Content of the issue 4(13)/2017
Content of the issue 4 (13)/2017
Abstract. The Holocaust today stands out as the paradigmatic genocide in world consciousness. It took four decades after the Second World War to surface as its key event and the central crime against humanity that has broken up the container of the nation-state and emerged as a global memory. The essay investigates the institutions and infrastructure of this growing memory community and discusses different qualities of its dispersion. Due to the irreducible difference of historical perspectives, global extension never implies sameness of memory. The quality, status and impact of this memory differ greatly, depending on whether it is framed as a historical trauma, as part of a political agenda, as a cosmopolitan reference, as a universal norm or as a global icon. Accordingly, the extension of the commemorating community will be smaller or larger, limited or open.
Key words: trauma, perpetrators, victims, rescuers, bystanders, survivors, history versus memory, sites of memory, media, universals.
P. 47 T. V. Volokitina. Round table „1956. Eastern Europe at the turn”
Abstract. The review of the reports of the round table at the Institute of Slavic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences on October 25, 2016 is published. The subject of the round table was the principal events of 1956. The participants of the meeting, using a wide range of diverse sources, analyze the growth of the crisis situation in Eastern Europe, the strengthening of centrifugal tendencies in the «socialist camp», place the «Poznań June» in Poland and the «interrupted revolution» in Hungary in the context of attempts to liberalize political regimes in the countries of the Soviet bloc, of the attitude to them of power structures, the mood of the population, the consequences of these events for the bloc and the major communist parties of Western Europe — French and Italian.
Key words: The socialist camp, the reformist mood of the communist society, political leaders of Eastern Europe, Moscow and the problem of the renewal of socialism.
Abstract. The subject of the article — the reconstruction of the family history. The author examines the life of a Bessarabian family in the years of the political repressions launched in Bessarabia in 1940 after the incorporation of the region into the USSR. The only fault of Vasile Bîrdu was that before 1940 in the interwar Bessarabia he was a member of the National Liberal Party (whose program really was one of the most democratic in the interwar Romania). Family did not resist the actions of the Soviet power. Nevertheless it was deported from the Soviet Moldavia to one of the far regions of the Russian Federation. Vasile Bîrdu died in GULAG in 1942. The life of this family was turned into hell. The history is based on archival documents.
Key words: family history, Bessarabia, the political repressions of the Soviet Power, the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, the exiles to Siberia, the mass deportations of 1941 from the Soviet Moldavia.
Abstract. The author analyses the problems of the un-development of historical politics and politics of memory in their classical forms in the UK. It is assumed that historiographies in England and Scotland are politicised, but degrees of their ideologisation are incomparable with the same characteristics and peculiarities of the historiographies in the nationalizing states of Eastern Europe. The author presumes that the historiographical English-Scottish contradictions are comparable with Ukrainian-Russian debates. English and Scottish intellectuals have some mutual historical claims and seek to challenge the rights of their opponents to write, imagine, invent and construct history independently. English historiography, as Russian nationalist historiography of Ukraine, imagines Scotland as part of the British political space and denies the independent status of the Scottish language. Scottish historiography, as the Ukrainian one, tends to imagine the history of Scotland as an independent historical and political tradition, emphasising the linguistic and ethnic differences between the Scots and the English. Despite a significant number of mutual claims, national historiographies in the UK did not transform into historical politics. The author states that these transformations and aggravations of mutual historical claims are possible if the processes of regionalisation in the UK and the rise of internal contradictions will allow Scottish nationalists to revise the status of Scotland radically. This scenario provides the emergence of several nationalising states, where political elites will begin to manipulate history and practice various forms of historical politics, which is actively used by Eastern European countries, where historical manipulations and speculations became the norm.
Key words: England, Scotland, history, historical politics, politics of memory, nationalism.
Actual problems of national memory of foreign countries
Chronicle of historical policy
Abstract. In this publication, an attempt is made to collect all Vladimir Putin's statements on the topic of Stalinism. This is only the first step in monitoring the rhetoric of the Russian president on this painful topic. To learn „how it was in reality” is especially important, because this „fact” of memory is actively used for political purposes, both by supporters and opponents of the Kremlin.
AS IT ACTUALLY WAS
THE CENTENARY OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
P.153 „Revolution, under the Empire’s current system of governance, was inevitable”. Interview with V.B. Aksenov
Abstract. In 1967, the follower of Trotsky and his biographer Isaac Deutscher published the book „The Unfinished Revolution”, in which an attempt was made to understand the significance of the Russian revolution of 1917. The book of Deutscher was written for the 50th anniversary of the revolution, and now it's been 50 years since the book was published. In the book we see the difficulties faced by the left-wing author who is trying to condemn simultaneously Bolshevism, and justify socialism, condemn Stalinism, but justify the revolution — and Deutscher demonstrates the whole arsenal of ambivalent rhetoric strategies natural for free-thinking Marxism of the twentieth century. Today, Deutscher's book is, first and foremost, a memorial to discours, demonstrating that the socialist revolution was a major problem for the left in the twentieth century, and that work on the Marxist interpretation of Stalinism was never completed.
Key words: Revolution, socialism, Bolshevism, Stalinism, Trotskyism, Industrial development, randomness, regularity, the theory of convergence, Maoism, Stalin.
P. 232 S. E. Ehrlich. “And how unnatural is internationalism?”. Rev. : Sergeev S.M. Russkaya naciya, ili Rasskaz ob istorii ee otsutstviya. M.: Centrpoligraf, 2017. 575 s.
P. 243 M. V. Medovarov. One Slogan’s Encyclopaedia. Rev.: Ivanov A. A. Vyzov nacionalizma: Lozung «Rossiya dlya russkih» v dorevolyucionnoi obshestvennoi mysli. SPb.: Vladimir Dal’, 2016. 511 s.
Abstract. The review is devoted to the book by Andrey A. Ivanov that contents author’s studying pf history of the slogan „Russia for Russians” from 1867 to 1917 and a huge anthology of journalistic texts on this topic. Historiographical novelty of the author’s approach in noticed. The most interesting and disputable moments of polemics about this slogan in the conservative, nationalistic and liberal camps are also analyzed.
Key words: Russia for Russians, Nationalism, Slavophilism, Black Hundreds, Cadets, Vest’ newspaper, Vladimir Gringmut, Lev Tikhomirov, Mikhail Menshikov, Pyotr Stolypin, Russian Assembly, All-Russian National Union.
P. 250 A. S. Stykalin. Rev.: Ar.A. Ulunyan. «Posleprazhskii 1969-i»: sovetskie diplomatiya i razvedka v poiskah soyuznikov i protivnikov na Balkanah i v Evropeiskom Sredizemnomor’e. M, URSS, 2016. 400 s.
P. 261 I.A. Levinskaya. Noah’s sons. Rev.: de Lange N. Japeth in the Tents of Shem. [Иафет в шатрах Сима]. Greek Bible Translations in Byzantine Judaism. – Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2015. – 221 p.
P. 266 V.A. Solonar’. Rev.: The Kishinev Ghetto, 1941–1942: A Documentary History of the Holocaust in Romania’s Contested Borderlands, Paul A. Shapiro. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2015
P. 269 A.A. Teslya. Fears, hopes and reputation: French people in Nicolas the First Russia and about it. Rev.: Mil’china V. «Francuzy poleznye i vrednye»: nadzor za inostrancami v Rossii pri Nikolae I. — M.: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2017. — 488 s.: il. (Seriya «Chto takoe Rossiya»)
The Russian Empire
P. 275 V. V. Vedernikov. Road to nowhere. Rev.: Kotov A.E. «Tsarskii put’» Mihaila Katkova: Ideologiya byurokraticheskogo nacionalizma v politicheskoi publicistike 1860–1890-h godov. SPb.: Vladimir Dal’, 2016. — 487 s.
P. 283 M. Yu. Nemtsev. The story of overcoming variety. Рец.: Новая имперская история Северной Евразии. Часть I: Конкурирующие проекты самоорганизации: VII–XVII вв. / под ред. И. Герасимова. Казань: «Ab Imperio», 2017. 364 с. Новая имперская история Северной Евразии. Часть II: Балансирование имперской ситуации: XVIII–XX вв. / под ред. И. Герасимова. Казань: «Ab Imperio», 2017. 630 с.
P. 294 K.A. Pakhalyuk. „...and we, the nobles and the ruling class will cruelly pay for our softness”: the World War I and the Civil war in I. S. Ilyin’s diaries. Rev.: Il’in I. S. Skitaniya russkogo oficera. Dnevnik Iosifa Il’ina 1914–1920. M.: Russkii put’, 2016. 480 s. ill.
P. 303 S. E. Ehrlich. „Until the end of time to play a bad Putin and good Yeltsin”. Rev.: Ona razvalilas’. Povsednevnaya istoriya SSSR i Rossii v 1985–1999 gg. / sost. E. Yu. Buzev. — M.: Russkii fond sodeistviya obrazovaniyu i nauke, 2017. — 256 s.: il.
P. 307 A. I. Kazankov, O.L. Leybovich. „Bourgeois individualism remained in the family...”. Metaphor of a House in a historical narrative. Реv.: Slezkine, Yuri, The House of Government: a saga of the Russian Revolution. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2017
P. 348 Requirements for publication of articles and documents