Content of the issue 2(19)/2019


Global Memory

P. 9    K.G. Frumkin. The discourse of the Holocaust: political evil and the historical memory

 Abstract. In his essay, the author puts the problem of the Holocaust in the context of philosophical reflections on the phenomenon of political evil and on historical memory.

Key words: Holocaust, political evil, genocide, Nazism, Hitler, massacre of Armenians, historical memory.


National memory

P. 26     “The Golden Horde was not a barbarous backwater of the ecumene, but a bright and peculiar phenomenon in a series of medieval civilizations.” Interview with V.V. Trepavlov

Abstract. The prominent Russian expert on inter-ethnic relations in medieval Eurasia is trying to assess the place of the Golden Horde among medieval civilizations and the trace it left behind in Russian and world history.

Key words: nomadic civilizations, Golden Horde and its successors, Mongolian Empire, Moscow Russia.


Actual problems of national memory of foreign countries

P. 35   «Fortunately, the professional dialogue between historians continues. However, who would listen and hear historians who do not want to follow political guidelines?» Interview with G.V. Kasianov

Abstract. One of the leading Ukrainian historians speaks about the historical destinies of Ukraine in the whole diversity of its historical lands, and touches also the painful problems of Russian-Ukrainian and Polish-Ukrainian relations.

Key words: history of Ukraine, Ukrainian national identity, Ukrainian historical memory, Russian-Ukrainian relations, Polish-Ukrainian relations, historical policy, national historical narrative, Holodomor (the Great Hunger).


P. 46   “The historian must sometimes also be a citizen”. Interview with I. A. Pop

Abstract. A prominent Romanian historian, president of the Romanian Academy of Sciences, talks about the key problems of the history of his country and Russian-Romanian relations in the light of the 100th anniversary of the “great unification” of the Romanian lands, noted at the state level in December 2018.

Key words: Romania, Transylvania, unification of Romanian lands, Russian-Romanian relations.


P. 57    M.V. Kyrchanoff. The historical revisionism in Bulgaria: problems of national revival history and political responsibility of intellectuals

Abstract. The author analyzes the forms of historical revisionism in the modern historiography of Bulgaria. Nationalism, nationalist imagination and political myths are the main factors that stimulate historical revisionism. Bulgarian intellectuals offer revisionist conceptions of the history of the 19th century and alternative viewpoints on the period of the National Revival. Bulgarian historical revisionism has a predominantly modernist and constructivist character. Historical revisionism is one of the influential intellectual trends in modern Balkan historiography, but despite it, the prospects and possible trajectories of the development of historical revisionism remain vague and uncertain.

Key words: historiography, historical imagination, revisionism, nationalism, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire, Bulgarian-Turkish relations.


P. 70    G.F. Matveev. Polish-Russian relations in the 20th century through the eyes of an unbiased historian

Abstract. One of the leading Russian specialists in Polish history in his essay expresses his opinion on the key and most painful problems of Russian-Polish relations in recent times, discusses the reasons for mutual misunderstanding of two peoples.

Key words: history of Poland, Russian-Polish relations, Poland in the foreign policy of Russia and the USSR, the Russian factor in Polish history, Polish national memory.


P. 75   I. I. Barinov. Problems of development of the Belarusian national statehood: view of the opposition

Abstract. The article examines the contradictions between the opposition and the acting authorities in Belarus concerning the further development of national statehood. The study of primary sources stress the main claims and demands of the opposition to the Belarusian ruling regime and provide a brief outline of their formation and applicability in the real politics. The article is also focused on an attempt to structure the common ideological concepts concerning the state development, the role of national language and the politics of memory, shared by the diverse groups of Belarusian opposition. As the analysis has shown, they mostly occurred to be outdated and irrelevant to reality. Because of this, the strategies of the future, considered by the opposition as an alternative to the current development of Belarus, does not seem to be realistic.

Key words: Belarus, opposition, national statehood, politics of memory.


P. 87    “I don’t see how a person living in the 21st century can have a personal sense of guilt for what his ancestors did”. Interview with R. Tempest

Abstract. In the interview regarding problems of the British national memory: “I cannot understand why a person living in the 21st century should feel guilty for his or her ancestors acts”, professor Tempest tells how modern Britons reflect the British Empire heritage. He pays a lot of attention to the comparing of Munich Agreement (1938) to Molotov — Ribbentrop Pact (1939). In addition to that professor Tempest reflects what is more important for British and Russian memories: the personal input of Churchill and Stalin towards the victory over Hitler or their crimes against humanity including Holodomor and Gulag in the USSR, the Bengal starvation (1943) and detention camps in Kenia during Mau Mau uprising (1952–1960).

Key words: The British Empire, Munich Agreement (1938), Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (1939), Churchill, Stalin, Holodomor, Gulag, the Bengal starvation (1943) and detention camps in Kenia during Mau Mau uprising (1952–1960).


The era of the collapse of empires and the formation of new states in a 100-year historical retrospective

P. 103    L. Luks. A struggle with the West and a desire for „new greatness”. Soviet-German Relations from the Treaty of Rapallo to the German „October” of 1923. Debates in the German Historiography

Abstract. Was there a real communist threat in Germany right after the First World War? The Berlin historian Ernst Nolte, who initiated the so-called „German historians´ dispute” in 1986 with his controversial theses, answers this question in the affirmative. National Socialism for Nolte is primarily a reaction to this allegedly ever-present Bolshevik danger. What did this threat, postulated by the Berlin historian, actually look like? This question will be considered in the present article on the example of the so-called German „October” of 1923 and its prehistory.

Key words: Ernst Nolte, Hans von Seeckt, Athur Moeller van den Bruck, V. I. Lenin, Karl Radek, Rapallo, The Communist Party of Germany, Gustav Stresemann, National Bolshevism, National Socialism.


P. 121    “The historian is opposed to prejudice, and is not at all the keeper of historical memory, which is always cunning”. Interview with V.P. Buldakov

Abstract. A prominent expert on the history of the Russian revolution talks about the state, key problems and prospects for studying the Great Russian Revolution in the light of the recently celebrated 100th anniversary of the events of 1917.

Key words: systemic crisis of the Russian Empire, background of the Russian revolution, February 1917 in Russian history, October 1917 in Russian history, cyclical nature in history, the role of the individual in the revolution, social psychology of the masses in the revolution, ethnic conflicts in the Russian revolution, cultural elite in the Russian revolution, the sources of the study of the Great Russian Revolution.


P. 133    M. Zeidler. The Trianon Peace Treaty of 1920. A View of Contemporary Hungarian Historiography 7 №2 2019

Abstract. The article presents a point of view on the Trianon Peace Treaty of 1920 and its consequences for Hungary, dominant in that part of modern Hungarian historiography that is free from the extremes of nationalism.

Key words: interethnic contradictions in the Habsburg monarchy, the First World War, the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the revolution of 1918–1919 in Hungary, Paris Peace Conference, Trianon Peace Treaty and its aftermath, Versailles International Relations System.




P. 158    A. A. Rybalka. Antonin Ramensky: the trace of Lenin

Abstract. The article presents the details of the first and one of the most resonant mystifications of Antonin Ramensky (1913–1985), the author of the large-scale mystification „Ramensky teachers' dynasty” — the presentation of documents from the personal archive of the Ramensky family with autographs and records by V. I. Lenin. The author shows how the features of the ideological situation of the time led to the fact that these documents, despite the obvious mistakes of the authors of the mystification, successfully passed the expertise of specialists and were introduced into the academic circulation of „Leniniana”.

Key words: mystification, Lenin, Party program, expertise, Ulyanov and Ramensky.


P. 172    A. A. Kunitsyn, A. A. Orlov. “Spinster’s Mite”. British monetary assistance to Russians after the Patriotic War of 1812

Abstract. The idea that England did not provide Russia with effective assistance during the Patriotic War of 1812 was established in Russian historiography a long time ago. The ruling circles of Britain, indeed, hesitated with help, fearing that Napoleon would be able to defeat quickly the Russian army and Alexander I would conclude a peace treaty with him. But the public of Great Britain, especially business representatives interested in the early resumption of Anglo-Russian trade and in reviving its dependent sectors of the economy badly affected by the continental blockade, managed to organize a fund-raising campaign for the affected Russians throughout the country. Archival documents indicate that the English donations of 1812–1814, some of which were collected by ordinary people, were significant and this made it possible to provide effective assistance to the inhabitants of Russia’s war-torn provinces. In addition, archival sources make it possible to correct information previously available in the domestic literature about the use of money by the Russian authorities from England in 1812 not for helping its people, but for military needs.

Key words: Patriotic War of 1812, British donations of 1812–1814, British charity at the beginning of the 19th century, Russian finances of the Napoleonic Wars era.


P. 188    A.V. Shubin. Archival sources and conspiracy theories

Abstract. The article analyzes the conspiracy and mythological versions of history associated with the description of the activities of Y. Sverdlov in 1918, when he was the formal head and one of the leaders of the Soviet state. For myth builders Sverdlov is important as a jew and as a figure, which Soviet historiography considered apologetically. Considering the description of the activities of Sverdlova of such authors as S. S. Voytikov, Y. G. Felshtinsky and P.V. Multatuli, the author of the article shows that today myth-building can be combined with abundant citation of sources and literature, which does not guarantee the correctness of the conclusions of the historians who selects the facts under a pre-created ideological picture.

Key words: Sverdlov, conspiracy, historical myths, civil war, terror, Lenin, Trotsky, Nicholas II.



Generalizing studies

P. 202 A. A. Teslya. Wasting art. Rev.: Arvatov B. Iskusstvo i proizvodstvo. Sbornik statei / Vstup. st. D. Roberts; poslesl. A. Penzin. M.: V-A-Cpress, 2018. 184 p.

Abstract. The new edition of the book “Art and Production” by Boris Arvatov (1926) is reviewed which is one of the most significant theoretical texts of the Left Front of Arts and, simultaneously, one of the works that had a great influence not only on the subsequent development of avant-garde thought, but also on its modern theoretical understanding.

Key words: Left art, avant-garde, industrial art, Soviet artistic culture of the 1920s, sociology of art.


P. 206    I. O. Dementev. What is historical memory? Rev.: Safronova Yu.A. Istoricheskaya pamiat’: vvedenie (Historical memory: an introduction). Saint Petersburg: European University at St. Petersburg Publishing House, 2019. 220 p.

Abstract. The paper reviews a manual by Yu. A. Safronova dedicated to various aspects of the phenomenon of historical memory.

Key words: collective memory, cultural memory, historical memory, lieux de mémoire.


The world

P. 219    A. M. Sabo. Rev.: Andrea Pető, Elmondani az elmondhatatlant, A nemi erőszak Magyarországon a II. világháború alatt (Rasskazat’ nerasskazyvaemoe. Istoriyaiznasilovanii v Vengrii v gody Vtoroi mirovoi voiny), Budapest, Jaffa Kiadó, 2018, 278 pp. 

Abstract. This article reviews the historiographical and methodological stance of Andrea Pető’s new book, Telling the Untellable by placing its importance in today’s public and academic discussion on wartime rape. Upon exploring the book’s interdisciplinary approaches of historical research, the review sheds light on its function of becoming an important part of the memory of politics concerning the topic. Taking into consideration its embeddedness into the contemporary state of memory politics, this article sheds light onto the multidirectional vision of the book: how both Hungarian and Russian voices are examined and analyzed for a holistic understanding.

Key words: Second World War, Hungary, Russia, German invasion, Soviet invasion, wartime rape, memory of politics, military culture.


P. 227   S. E. Ehrlich. A Tragedy without Catharsis. Rev.: Pavel, Polyan. Zhizn’ i smert’ v aushvickom adu (Life and Death in the Auschwitz Hell)/ P.M. Polyan. — Moskva: Izdatel’stvo AST, 2018. 640 p. (Istoriya de-fakto)

Abstract. The review is focused on documents of Auschwitz sonderkommando’s Jewish members, which compell us to correct the black and white Holocaust myth. There was a substantial “gray zone” (Primo Levi) in between Nazy perpetrators and their Jewish victims. During the revolt of 7 and 8 October 1944 Jewish „assistants” of Nazis moved to the „white zone” of heroes-martyrs, but their tragedy does not perform a catharsis.

Key words: Holocaust, Auschwitz, sonderkommando, „gray zone”.


P. 237    L.Yu. Pakhomova. Rev.: Rauscher, Walter. Die fragile Großmacht. Die Donaumonarchie und die europäische Staatenwelt 1866– 1914. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2014

Abstract. The book by Austrian historian Walter Rauscher „Fragile great power. Danube Monarchy and European States, 1866–1914” is reviewed. Rauscher reconstructs the foreign policy history of the Habsburg monarchy on the basis of numerous archival documents from Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Germany, Great Britain, France, Italy, Switzerland. The only sources inaccessible to the researcher were Russian. The historian examines in chronological order the policies of each minister of foreign affairs of the Danube monarchy from 1866 to 1914 in all its diversity. Rauscher assesses the foreign policy problems of Austro-Hungary in conjunction with its internal contradictions, in the context of the internal, inter-party political struggle and complicated interethnic relations, as well as complex relationships between different lands.

Key words: foreign policy of Austria-Hungary, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Habsburg Monarchy, international relations in the XIX — early XX centuries.


The Russian Empire

P. 248    A. A. Teslya. Orthodox collegiums: training, students and teachers. Rev.: Posohova L.Yu. Pravoslavnye kollegiumy na peresechenii kul’tur, tradicii, epoh (konec XVII — nachalo XIX v.). M.: Politicheskaya enciklopediya, 2016. 550 p.

Abstract. The book is reviewed, in which the Ukrainian Orthodox colleges of the end of the XVII — beginning of the XIX centuries are examined in the context of the culture and education system of its time.

Key words: education system in the Russian Empire, Orthodox colleges in the Russian Empire, Ukrainian lands within the Russian Empire, history of pedagogy.


P. 253    S. S. Belyakov. Between ethnonym and ethnic group. Rev.: Gaida F.A. Grani i rubezhi: ponyatiya “Ukraina” i “ukraincy” v ih istoricheskom razvitii. M.: Modest Kolerov, 2019. 200 p.

Abstract. The reviewed study is devoted to the historical evolution of the concepts “Ukrainians” and “Ukraine”.

Key words: Ukraine, Ukrainians, ethnonym, ethnic group, Ivan Franko.


P. 262    M.V. Medovarov. The Return of a Forgotten Trend in Russian Political Life. Rev.: Chemakin A.A. Origins of Russian National Democracy: 1896 — 1914. St. Petersburg: Vladimir Dal’, 2018. 651 pp.; Chemakin A.A. Russian National Democrats in the Age of Shock: 1914 — early 1920s. St. Petersburg: Vladimir Dal’, 2018. 606 p.

Abstract. The review is devoted to the two Anton Chemakin’s monographs about previously practically unexplored phenomenon of “national democratic” movements in Russia and beyond its borders at the end of the nineteenth — the first third of the twentieth centuries. An assessment of the source base of the study and its structure is given. A number of key problems and remaining unresolved questions of the history of Russian national democrats before and after 1917 are highlighted.

Key words: National Democracy, National Liberalism, Neoslavism, „Lado” collection, „New Russia” collection, „Dym Otechestva”, Dmitry Vergun, Mikhail Karaulov, Timofey Lokot’, Alexander Garyazin, Imperial People Party.


P. 270    A. Y. Fomin. Rev.: General Kuropatkin — State and Military leader of the Russian Empire. 170th Anniversary of his Birth. Collective monograph. Fond Universitet, St. Petersburg, 2018, 369 p.

Abstract. The study under review consists of several biographical essays about notorious Russian military leader of the late XIXth — early XXth century, general A. N. Kuropatkin. The authors try to provide new interpretation of Kuropatkin’s historical role. Their main goal is to eliminate conventional negative image of Kuropatkin as a person responsible for the Russia’s defeat in a war against Japan. Their approach based on the revision of traditional judgements about Kuropatkin and close study of the relatively little-known aspects of his biography.

Key words: Kuropatkin, Russo-Japanese war, ministry of war, Central Asian revolt of 1916, yellow peril.



P. 279 V.V. Tikhonov. Superpower Showcases. Rev.: Sovetskaya kul’turnaya diplomatiya v usloviyah Holodnoi voiny. 1945-1989: Kollektivnaya monografiya / nauch. red., ruk. avt. kollektiva O. S. Nagornaya. M.: Politicheskaya enciklopediya, 2018. 446 p.

Abstract. The review deals with the collective monograph “Soviet cultural diplomacy in the Cold war. 1945–1989”. It is concluded that this is the first generalizing work on Soviet cultural diplomacy of the postwar period, demonstrating the main mechanisms and directions of its work.

Key words: cultural diplomacy, Cold war, Soviet history.


P. 287    A.V. Sveshnikov. Not even a namesake. Rev.: Bazanov P.N. “Petropol’skii Tacit” v izgnanii: Zhizn’ i tvorchestvo russkogo istorika Nikolaya Ul’yanova. SPb., Vladimir Dal’, 2018. 511 p.

Abstract. The article is a review of the monograph of the Petersburg historian P. N. Bazanov “„Petropolsky Tacitus” in Exile: The Life and Work of Russian Historian Nikolai Ulyanov”. In the monograph under review, the first attempt was made in the domestic science to comprehensively systematically examine the life and work of the famous publicist and historian N. I. Ulyanov (1904–1985). The author of the monograph was able to collect a unique material that allows thoroughly reconstructing the life path of his hero. However, the analysis of the views of N. I. Ulyanov, presented in the monograph under review, raises certain objections.

Key words: history of historical science, history of Russian emigration, N. P. Ulyanov, periodical press of Russian emigration, methodology of historiographical research.


Educational literature

P. 292    S.V. Polyakova. History for economists: a philosopher’s point of view. Rev.: Dedkov N.I., Bordyugov G.A., Sherbakova E.I. i dr. Istoriya dlya ekonomistov: Integrirovannyi uchebnyi kompleks dlya studentov ekonomicheskih special’nostei VUZov RF. V 2-h tt./ Pod red. A.D.Nekipelova, S.N. Katyrina. M., AIRO-XXI, 2016, 2018

Abstract. The article is a review for the new integrated “History for Economists” written by Moscow School of Economics (MSU)'s sholars. “History for Economists” is adressed to the students graduating in Economics but it will be interesting for all who study history. The author believes that the basis of this book is an integrated approach of the study of world and national history with an emphasis on identifying the interrelations of the economic, political, social and cultural processes.

Key words: history textbook, high school, History for Economists, integrated approach, comparativistics, historiosophy, values, Нomo economicus, multimedia learning.

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