Content of the issue 3(20)/2019
Abstract. National communities can differ sharply over their memory of an event. Studies of the “new unconscious” in cognitive science emphasize the human tendency to make automatic, fast, unambiguous, and overly confident decisions about events, a tendency that contrasts with the slower, conscious reflective processes involved in historical scholarship. In the case of national memory, I argue that “narrative templates” shape fast thinking. American national memory, for example, often relies on a “city on a hill” narrative template that has been invoked repeatedly for centuries. The legitimacy and accuracy of this schematic story may be questioned, but its impact on American political discourse is evident across centuries and political orientation. Similarly, I argue that an “expulsion of alien enemies” narrative template shapes certain aspects of Russian national memory. The goal is not only to recognize, but to manage the fast thinking that guides national memory. A first step is to appreciate the power of narrative templates and recognize that historical scholarship can provide a partial antidote.
Key words: new unconscious, fast thinking, narrative templates, city-on-a-hill, expulsion-of-alien-enemies.
Abstract. In his interview professor Rothberg tells about his reasons of involvement in memory studies. He also explains his concept of multidirectional memory and how it correlates with national and transnational memories frameworks. He shows how his map of multidirectional memory works in different cases of politically charged memory wars and tells about his academic plans.
Key words: memory studies, multidirectional memory, the map of multidirectional memory, Israel-Palestinian conflict, Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
Abstract. Rothberg, Michael. “From Gaza to Warsaw: Mapping Multidirectional Memory”. This essay focuses on a controversy that arose when a radical American sociology professor declared that “Gaza is Israel’s Warsaw” and forwarded students a photo essay with “parallel images of Nazis and Israelis”, several of which depict the Warsaw Ghetto. Through this example, the essay maps the range of forms that public memory can take in politically charged situations. The goal of the essay is to provide a complex account of what Rothberg calls “multidirectional memory”. It provides such an account by situating acts of multidirectional memory on two axes: an axis of comparison and an axis of political affect.
Key words: Israel, Palestine, occupation, Nakba, Holocaust memory, Warsaw Ghetto, Gaza, Alan Schechner, multidirectional memory, comparison, affect.
Abstract. The article reveals differences in the historical writing of the Russian and Ukrainian versions of Wikipedia.
Key words: Wikipedia, Ukraine, Russia, historical narrative, historical battle.
Actual problems of national memory of foreign countries
Abstract. The interview engages with the politics and practices of memory in South Africa. Among the questions discussed are the diversity of the communities of memory; the failure of creating a cohesive national memory based on a politics of formal reconciliation during the 1990s and 2000s; Eurocentric forms of commemoration as an obstacle towards the emergence of dialogical memory; cultural memory of the Anglo-Boer War; questions of trauma and postmemory among the younger generation. Further, the interview reflects on memory of apartheid as a leading theme in post-1994 South African literature and art, and the possibilities and pitfalls of analyzing post-apartheid and post-socialist memory practices comparatively.
Key words: memory in post-apartheid South Africa, communities of memory, divided memory, generations, post-apartheid and post-socialist memory in comparison.
Abstract. The article by Jaroslav Šimov, Prague-based historian specializing on the modern history of the Central-Eastern Europe, deals with the most important trends in the modern political history of Intermarium — the region which lays between the three seas — Baltic, Black and Adriatic. This region has for centuries been one of the most important crossroads of Europe, the place where the interests of different geopolitical actors were meeting, competing and clashing. The author analyzes the most important historical events from the end of WWI until nowadays. This analysis is based on two important historical trends which should be emphasized: the struggle of the Intermarium nations for the political subjectness and the clash of integration and disintergration, centripetal and centrifugal forces which made a great impact on the past and present of Intermarium.
Key words: Intermarium, Central-Eastern Europe, subjectness, nationalism, empire, integration, disintegration, dictatorship, democracy.
Abstract. The book “The History of Serbia” (2009) written by the German historian H. Sundhaussen provoked a strong reaction among professional historians and in the public sphere in general. The author set the task to deconstruct the prevailing historical mythology, and this challenged the national memory community. The ensuing reaction showed the alignment of forces within the community, namely: the predominance of the defenders of lieux de mémoire. Sundhaussen was accused of reproducing anti-Serb propaganda stereotypes. To some extent, this result was predicted by the author himself. He contributed to the denial of the significance of his research by some flaws of a methodological nature. However, this was not the focus of Serbian historians. The condemnation scenario was formed before the scientific review of the book.
Key words: Serbia, historical science, politics of memory, Holm Sundhaussen.
Abstract. The scientist biophysicist Andrei Malenkov talks about his father, the prominent party and state functionary of the USSR, Georgii Malenkov, and about the time in which he lived.
Key words: G. Malenkov, I. Stalin, N. Ezhov, L. Beria, N. Khrushchev, partystate leadership of the USSR, the last years of the Stalin era, the “Leningrad affair” of 1949, thaw reforms in the USSR in 1950-es, economic policy of the USSR, 1957 anti-Khrushchev putsch.
Napoleon and his era in historical memory (to the 250th anniversary of his birth)
Abstract. Fiction has a powerful influence on the formation of historical memory and historical ideas. It was the novels of A. Dumas and P. Mérimée that formed the classic vision of the tragic events of the St. Bartholomew's Night; Napoleon and the Patriotic War of 1812 are judged in Russia specifically after the works of L.N. Tolstoy . Walter Scott's epic about Napoleon shaped his image in the British public consciousness. Chateaubriand, Musset, Balzac, Stendhal, Hugo, Dumas, Beranger, together with the soldiers of the Great Army, stood at the origins of the legend and myth of Napoleon. Some of these writers were somehow connected with the Napoleonic wars. Hugo and Dumas were the sons of the generals of the Empire; Musse and Vigny were born at the beginning of the century and reflected the sentiments of a whole generation who did not participate in the war, but was born in the war years and lived in the atmosphere of victories. This article is devoted to the study of the formation of „the Napoleonic legend” in France during the Restoration (1814–1830) and the July monarchy (1830–1848) by the French writers and poets of the romantic direction.
Key words: Napoleon Bonaparte, “Napoleonic Legend”, French Romantic Literature, F.R. de Chateaubriand, O. Balzac, Stendhal, V. Hugo, A. de Vigny, A. de Musset, J. Sand, P.-J. Béranger, P. Mérimée.
Poltava in historical memory (to the 310th anniversary of the battle of Poltava)
P. 188 “Hetman Mazepa’s treason did not become a watershed in Russian-Ukrainian relations, but only a controversial moment in Russian and Ukrainian historiography”. Interview with V.A. Artamonov 7 № 3 2019
Abstract. One of the most prominent Russian historians of the Peter the Great era, the author of fundamental works on the history of the Great Northern War and the Russian foreign policy of the beginning of the 18th century discusses the level of research of the Russian-Polish and the Russian-Ukrainian relationships in those times and tries to assess achievements and perspectives of further studies on the battle of Poltava 1709.
Key words: Peter I, Charles XII, Ivan Mazepa, The Great Northern War, The battle of Poltava, The Russian foreign policy.
HISTORY IN THE MODERN SOCIETY
Abstract. A specialist in the sociology of reading talks about the problems of youth reading, including reading historical literature.
Key words: sociology of reading, youthful reading, historical literature, memoirs, fiction on historical topics, study guides on history.
Abstract. Since 2015, all-Russian historical tests have been conducted. The historian and journalist Alexei Prokopiev analyzes their evolution, organizational problems and effectiveness as a tool for popularizing history.
Key words: all-Russian historical test, education, Russian history, history of the Great Patriotic War.
Abstract. The article discusses the series “Game of Thrones” as an example of a successful commercial product of internalizing popular culture, the creators of which were able to see and respond to the request of a global viewer. At the same time, they very precisely calculated how he perceives politics, and visualized these mass representations. As a result, we were shown on the screen a very cruel and conspiratorial world of intrigue and self-will, where politics comes down to what people considered to politicians do. The created visual image turned out to be so successful that the “Game of Thrones” began to be perceived as a kind of model of our world, allowing us to talk about its problems and shortcomings. The possibility of this is determined by the effects that make the fictional story taken seriously. And not the last role in this is played by images from the Western European Middle Ages. Since we live in the era of modern scrapping, the Middle Ages turns out to be a handy interpretational model.
Key words: memory policy, global memory, global viewer, fantasy, political values, conspiracy.
P. 219 I. I. BARINOV. Rev.: Michael Hagemeister. Die “Protokolle der Weisen von Zion“ vor Gericht. Der Berner Prozess 1933–1937 und die “antisemitische Internationale”. Zürich: Chronos 2017. 648 p. (Mikhael’ Khagejmejster. “Protokoly sionskikh mudretsov” pod sudom. Bernskij protsess 1933–1937 gg. i “antisemitskij internatsional”. Tsyurikh: Khronos, 2017. 648 p.)
Abstract. The new book of Michael Hagemeister, “The Protocols of the Elders of Zion on trial. The Bern Process 1933–37 and the “anti-Semitic International” is reviewed.
Key words: “Protocols of the Elders of Zion”, Bern process, anti-Semitism.
P. 223 A.A. KUZNETSOV. Rev.: Koen Stiven. Izbrannoe. M.: AIRO-XXI, 2018. 800 p. + il.
Abstract. The book of selected texts of the American expert on Soviet-Russian history, Professor Stephen Cohen, is reviewed. The review addresses the impact of historiography on socio-political processes and the alternative history of historical science.
Key words: Stephen Cohen, N.I. Bukharin, I.V. Stalin, V.I. Lenin, M. S. Gorbachev, B.N. Yeltsin, Soviet Union, Russia, historiography, alternative.
P. 228 S.E. EHRLICH. Is this worth the affect. Rev.: Politika affekta: muzei kak prostranstvo publichnoi istorii, pod red. A. Zavadskogo, V. Sklez, K. Suverinoi. Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2019. 400 p.: il. (Seriia “Intellektual’naia istoriia”)
Abstract. The reviewer remarks on three common points of that essays’ collection: 1) Transformations of the historical museum, which was a cornerstone of the national identity during Industrial Modernity era, into the museum of memory, shaping the transnational memory of the Information society; 2) The set of museum’s tools using to affect visitors’ emotions; 3) The multitude of modern museum’s concepts, which are evidence that a classic museum’s image does not correspond to the needs of our time.
Key words: politics of affect, affects, emotions, public history, historical museum, museum of memory, national and transnational narratives of memory.
Abstract. The new book of the famous expert on the history of the Comintern F. Firsov is reviewed, summing up the results of his many years of research.
Key words: Comintern, the 1917 revolution in Russia, the idea of a world revolution, USSR foreign policy instruments.
The Russian Empire
P. 245 V.Yu. DASHEVSKII, S.A. CHARNYI. Between the science and the myth. Rev.: Volodihin D.M. Ivan IV Groznyi. M, Molodaya gvardiya (Seriya «Zhizn’ zamechatel’nyh lyudei»), 2018. 342 p.
Abstract. The review gives a critical analysis of the book of the historian D. M. Volodikhin about Ivan the Terrible, published in 2018 in the ZhZL series. D. M. Volodikhin tried to create, in his expression, the „polychrome image of Ivan IV,” not to paint it with „whitish white or blackest black.” Volodikhin calls the apologists of Ivan the Terrible the creators of the „ultra-protective myth,” and those who „tarnishes the tsar” as „supporters of the liberal, Westernizing myth,” under whose influence, in his opinion, were even such famous historians as R. G. Skrynnikov and V.B. Kobrin. According to reviewers, the author convincingly and quite scientifically criticizes the „ultra-conservation myth.” At the same time criticism of the „liberal myth” by the author failed. Reviewers show this by comparing the position of the author and the points of view of historians such as R.G. Skrynnikov, V.B. Kobrin and B.N. Florea, as well as D. M. Volodikhin in his earlier works.
Key words: Ivan the Terrible, „ultra-protective myth”, „liberal myth”, „oppressed orphan”, Livonian war, the burning of Moscow and the Battle of Molodi, oprichnina and oprichnina terror, Skrynnikov, Kobrin, Florea, “second oprichnina”, Metropolitan Philip, Tsarevich Ivan, „the repentance of Grozny.”
P. 268 A. A. TESLYA. The last quarter of the Century of autocratic and unlimited Czarist power. Rev.: Solov’ev K.A. Politicheskaya sistema Rossiiskoi imperii v 1881–1905 gg.: problema zakonotvorchestva. M.: Politicheskaya enciklopediya, 2018. 351 p.
Abstract. New monograph paper of Kirill Solovyov is devoted to the analysis of the legislative process in the Russian Empire in 1881–1905 — in the period between the crisis of the late 1870s and the formation of an all-empire representation. Of particular interest is the analysis of the “political everyday life” of the late Russian Empire, which in a predictable way is significantly different from the norms approved by law or simply is not fixed in the latter.
Key words: supreme authorities, law, legislative process of the Russian Empire, history of bureaucracy, history of government.
P. 273 V. B. AKSENOV. One more step in the direction of visual expansion. Rev.: Grazhdanskaya voina v obrazah vizual’noi propagandy: slovar’-spravochnik / Pod red. E.A. Oreh. SPb.: Skifiyaprint, 2018. 176 p., 32 p. ill.
Abstract. The author reviews the dictionary-directory “The Civil War in the Images of Visual Propaganda” in the context of modern historiographical situation in visual research. It is noted that the reviewed edition is able to supplement the source potential of visual sources and more fully reconstruct the images of the revolutionary era.
Key words: visual history, images, imagology, revolution, civil war.
P. 280 V. A. KITAEV. In the circle of Andrzej Walicki’s ideas. Rev.: Walicki A. In the circle of conservative utopia. Structure and metamorphosis of Russian Slavophilism / translated from Polish. K. Dushenko. Moscow: New Literary Review, 2019. 704 p.
Abstract. The concept of Slavophilism proposed in the book by A. Valitsky is analyzed.
Key words: Russian social thought in the nineteenth century, Slavophilism, Westernism, worldview, ideology, utopia, Conservatism.
P. 292 A. I. PIREEV. Rev.: Dmitrieva O.N. Narodovolets Stepan G. Shiryaev. Saratov, 2017.
Abstract. The monograph of O.N. Dmitrieva, dedicated to the Russian revolutionary, populist S. G. Shiryaev.
Key words: Russia, populists, terror, ideology, „Narodnaya Volya”.
P. 298 A.V. SVESHNIKOV Poor, poor Carl ... Rev.: Cherniavsky S.N. The Empire of the Carolingians: The Birth of the West. M .: Veche, 2018. 352 p.
Abstract. The article is a review of the monograph of S.N. Cherniavsky „The Empire of the Carolingians: The Birth of the West”. The article shows that this monograph is a typical example of the so-called folk-history. The author of the monograph is not very familiar with modern scientific studies of the chosen topic, and the methodological basis of the work causes serious objections.
Key words: Middle Ages, Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, medieval studies, historiography, folk-history.
P. 304 Requirements for publication of articles and documents